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GNUR413, Diabetes

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jennifer12345's version from 2017-10-17 02:41

Section 1

Question Answer
What is the leading cause of diabetes-related deaths?heart disease and stroke
True or false: diabetes increased the rate of atherosclerosisTrue
Rapid acting insulinhumalog (insulin lispro), novolog (insulin aspart), apidra (insulin glulisine)
Intermediate acting insulinNPH, lente
Long acting insulininsulin detemir (levemir), insulin glargine (lantus)
Symptoms of hypoglycemiatachycardia, tremulousness, confusion, agitation, seizures
Adverse effects of Insulinlipohypertrophy, lipoatrophy
Drug interactions with insulindiuretics, glucocorticoids, phenytoin all increase blood glucose.
Somogyi phenomenonrebound hyperglycemia following hypoglycemia d/t counter regulatory hormone release
memorize

Section 2

Question Answer
Sulfonylureas - mechanism of actionincreased insulin secretion regardless of blood glucose
Adverse effects of Sulfonylureashyponatremia, weight gain, rash, GI upset, cholestasis, hemolytic anemia, hypoglycemia
First generation sulfonylureasacetohexaminde (dymelor), chlorpropamide (diabenese), tolazamide (tolinase)
Second generation sulfonylureasglimepiride (amaryl), glipizide (glucotrol), glyburide (diabeta, micronase)
Secretogogues- mechanism of actionincreased insulin secretion which is glucose dependent
Examples of Secretogoguesrepaglinide (prandin), nateglinide (starlix)
Adverse effects of Secretogogueshypoglycemia, GI upset, rash, uticaria
What is the first line agent used for non-obese newly diagnosed type 2 diabetics?Secretogogues
Biguanide- mechanism of actionreduced hepatic glucose production, intestinal glucose absorption & increased insulin sensitization
Adverse effects of biguanide (metformin)anorexia, metallic taste, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, lactic acidosis
What is the first line agent used for obese newly diagnosed type 2 diabetics?metformin
Examples of Thiazolidinedionesrosiglitazone (avandia), pioglitazone (actos)
Thiazolidinediones- mechanism of actionactivate PPAR-y receptor, sensitizes fat & muscle cells to action of insulin
Adverse effects of Thiazolidinedionesedema (exacerbation of CHF), weight gain, increased LFTs, anemia
Examples of Alpha-Glucosidase inhibitorsacarbose (precose), miglitol (glyset)
Alpha-Glucosidase Inhibitors- mechanism of actionreversible inhibition of glycosides in small intestine, leaded to slowed absorption of complex starches
Adverse effects of Alpha-Glucosidase Inhibitorsflatulence, hypoglycemia, diarrhea, abd pain, increased hepatic enzymes with acarbose
Glucagon-Like Peptide (GLP-1) mechanism of actionregulates glucose homeostasis, promotes satiety, slows gastric secretion
Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitor mechanism of actioninhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase-4
Adverse effects of Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitorsheadache, hypoglycemia, increased LFT & liver failure, pancreatitis, upper resp infection
Examples of Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitors (DPP-IV)alogliptin (nesina), linagliptin (tradjenta), saxagliptin (onglyza), sitagliptin (januvia)
Examples of Incretin Mimeticsexenatide (byetta), exanatide (bydureon), liraglutide (victoza)
Examples of Amylin Mimeticspramlintide (symlin)
memorize

Section 3