Global History Terms

beta2012's version from 2015-07-16 14:35


This page helps you learn basic and overarching Global History Terms used on the NYS Regents Exam


politicalSomething having to do with government
economicSomething having to do with trade
socialSomething having to do with people and society (culture, religion, etc.)
surplusmuch more than you need
subsistencejust enough for your needs. No surplus.
revolutionmajor change in a society or country
bartertrade without money
ideologybeliefs (usually political or social)
dictatorone person rule of a country


Question Answer
dynastya family of rulers
republicrule by the people with representatives
democracyrule by the people as equals
communismPeople equal: Socially, politically, economically
colonialismthe act of taking over another country as a colony
mercantilismEconomic System in which a country’s wealth is judged by the amount of Gold & Silver they own and have more exports than imports
imperialismone country takes over another; politically, socially, economically
capitalismEconomic System in which the means of production are privately owned and for profit
feudalismLand for Military Service in the Middle Ages
manorialismEconomic System in the Middle Ages in which there is a Manor House, Church, Farmland, and a village, and sometimes a castle


Question Answer
nationalismpride and devotion to one’s country
militarismextreme military build up
totalitarianismTotal control by a leader or group of leaders of a country
democratizationthe policy of making a country follow democratic (equality) principles
fascismTotalitarian, Extreme Nationalism, Extreme Militarism Rule
parliamentlegislature (law making) part of a government
physical geographyThe relationship between people and the physical features of the earth; rivers, oceans, mountains, deserts, rain forests, etc
monotheismBelief in only one god
polytheismBelief in more than one god
nomadicMoving from place to place


Question Answer
secularNon-Religious - Government
containmentpolicy during the cold war to stop the spread of communism
appeasementpolicy to stop Adolf Hitler from expanding the 3rd Reich. Land in exchange for peace.
natural Rightsrights from god or nature.
socialismEconomic system in which government controls the means of production.
social contracta non-written agreement between the ruler/government and the people
humanismthe renaissance belief in which the individual is stressed over god.
divine rightthe belief that a king/queen receives their power directly from god.


Question Answer
crusadesa journey to the middle east to free the Holyland (Israel/Constantinople) from Muslim control
ApartheidA system in South Africa which separated the races (blacks from whites) giving whites control over the country
ArchipelagoChain of islands
BlitzkreigLightening war
BourgeoisieThe middle class
Caste SystemA social class system in India in which there is no social mobility
Civil DisobedienceThe purposeful breaking of laws to protest actions by the government
CommerceThe act of conducting business
Absolute MonarchyKing and/or Queen who with total power given to them by God to rule over the people
Constitutional/Limited MonarchyA King or Queen whose power is limited by laws


Question Answer
DesertificationThe process in which land slowly dries out until little or no vegetation exists becoming a desert
EmpireA collection of nations or peoples ruled by a single authority and controlled politically and/or socially and/or economically, usually a monarch
FundamentalAffecting the underlying principles or structure of something
GenocideThe killing of all the people from a ethnic group, religious group, or people from a specific nation
GuildAn association of merchants or craftspeople in medieval Europe, formed to make regulations and set standards for a particular trade or craft
Heliocentric ModelA scientific model in which the earth revolves around the sun. Sun-centered Universe
ImportThe bringing in of goods from another country for sale or trade
ExportThe sending of goods to another country for sale or trade
IrrigationA system to bring water to support crops
Laissez-Faire EconomicsGovernment non-interference in the economics of a country (hands-off)?


Question Answer
Market EconomyAn economy based on free trade and supply and demand
IndustrializationThe change to industrial methods of production such as the use of factories
ChronologicalTime/Date order
HierarchyA system or organization in which people or groups are ranked one above the other according to status or authority
CartographyThe skill of map making
PhilosopherA person who seeks wisdom or enlightenment (a thinker)
IntellectualA person possessing highly developed thinking
Cultural DiffusionThe spreading of a society’s culture from one place to another culture
ModernizationTo make a country or society modern
EthnocentrismThe belief in the superiority of one's own ethnic group


Question Answer
EurocentrismThe belief in the superiority of Europe and the Europeans
InterdependenceWhen two states (nations) or more are dependent on each other? (socially/economically/politically)
AnthropologyThe comparative study of human societies and cultures and their development
ArchaeologyThe study of human history and prehistory through the excavation of sites and the analysis of artifacts
CultureA society’s “way of life”
PatriarchalA society led by male lineage
MatriarchalA society led by female lineage
MonsoonsSeasonal winds which bring rain
Green RevolutionAn agricultural revolution in the 1960-70s which increased farm production by modern technology
RenaissanceThe rebirth of Roman and Greek culture after the middle ages


Question Answer
Protestant RevolutionA protest to reform the Roman Catholic Church during the Renaissance
Non-AlignmentThe policy of countries during the Cold War not to align themselves with either the United States or the Soviet Union
Mandate of HeavenThe belief in China that the gods chose the ruler to govern the people, and if the ruler loses the mandate he should be removed
Filial PietyRespect owed to one's parents and ancestors
Perestrioka(in the former Soviet Union) The policy of restructuring or reforming the economic and political system, practiced in the 1980s under Mikhail Gorbachev
Glasnost(in the former Soviet Union) The policy or practice of more open government and wider dissemination of information, initiated by Mikhail Gorbachev
MarxismThe political and economic theories of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, later developed as the basis for communism
ZionismA movement for (originally) the reestablishment and (now) the development and protection of a Jewish nation in Israel
Holy Land/LevantThe eastern part of the Mediterranean (Israel/Jordan/Lebanon/Syria)?
IsolationismA national policy of abstaining from political or economic relations with other countries


Question Answer
PropagandaThe spreading of ideas to promote a point of view (positive or negative)?
Geographic DeterminismThe theory that geography determines a civlization’s success or failure
AfrocentrismA ethnocentric world view which emphasizes the importance of African people and Africa
SinocentrismAn ethnocentric perspective that regards China to be the center of civilization which is superior to all other nations
Social DarwinismThe theory that individuals, groups, and peoples are subject to the same Darwinian laws of natural selection
GenderThe socially constructed ideas about the behavior, actions, and roles a particular sex (male/female) performs
MasculinityMaleness: the properties characteristic of the male sex
FemininityThe trait of behaving in ways considered typical for women
HellenismThe spread of Greek culture after the death of Alexander the Great (323BCE)
Spheres of InfluenceA spatial region or concept division over which a state or organization has significant cultural, economic, military, or political influence


Question Answer
Self-SufficiencyAble to provide for oneself without the help of others; independent
BureaucracyThe administration portion of the government
scarcity Things that are in short supply
econmiendaThe economic system used by Spanish in the new world for the tribute (payment) and slave labor of native Indians.
domesticAnything pertaining to the home
factors of productionThe resources for the economic system of capitalism that includes land, labor, capital (money/things of value)), and entrepreneurship (industry leader).
Pan-AfricanismThe promotion of the political union of all the native inhabitants of Africa.
OPECThe Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. They control the main oil supply in the world.
NATOThe North Atlantic Treaty Organization. Military organization to protect Democratic Western Europe from the Communist Soviet Union.
NAFTAThe North American Free Trade Agreement. The free trade zone between the United States, Canada, and Mexico.


Question Answer
EUThe European Union. The economic and political organization of Europe.
CollectivizationThe consolidation (gathering) of farms into one government controlled authority during the 1920s-30s under Stalin in the Soviet Union.
Warsaw PactThe military organization to protect Communist Eastern Europe from Democratic Western Europe during the Cold War.
Columbian ExchangeThe import and export of traded goods from the Americas to Europe / Europe to the Americas.
Civil ServiceA government employee who usually takes an exam to work for the government.
TributePayment usually under force for protection.
Cultural DiversityThe mix of different ethnicities and their traditions and ways of life.
CircumnavigateTo go around. Refers to first ship to sail around the world during the Age of Exploration (Magellan).
EmancipateTo set free or liberate.
Command EconomyThe control of a country's economy by the government.