Global Environmental PH Part One

achapss's version from 2017-02-22 00:25


Question Answer
Health a state of complete social, physical, and mental well being not dependent on the absence of disease
Global Gag rule US funding regulation in which any funds limit health care facilities and professionals from utilizing money for prevention and family planning related activity
Growth Rate birth - death
What is the best situation for population growth?reduced growth, lower birth and death
Doubling Time the amount of time it takes in years for a population size to double
Total Fertility Rate the average amount of children a woman has in her reproductive life time for a clearer picture of reproductive behavior
Biotic Potential maximum growth rate that a population may reach limited by environmental resistance
Environmental Resistance pressures on a population including conflict as war and shortage as food scarcity
Carrying Capacity the total population that an ecosystem/environment is able to sustain
Population S Curvemost typically reflects animals and plants, slow to rapid growth and gradual leveling out where birth and death hit equilibrium, carrying capacity acts as resistance
Population J Curveusually reflects humans, exponential increase beyond the carrying capacity, too fast to experience any resistance
What was Ehrlich's theory on population?that there would be a population bomb and a period of mass starvation, we had to control the population before this would happen although it never did
Natural Increasecrude birth rate minus death rate to detect population growth
What happens around stage five in the demographic transition model?not seeing enough replacement of old generations low fertility and moderate mortality
What are the contributors leading to the decline in birth rate?industrialization - children are a threat, improved infant mortality - children living to reproductive age less of a necessity to have multiples, later marriage trend - reduces window of fertility, contraceptives and planning
Birth Death Fertility Ratiofertility rates below the rate of replacement, usually in high income countries, worker to retiree ratio 1:4 solutions are baby bonuses and immigration encouragement
What are the challenges of increasing urbanization and population?bad living conditions for the poor in terms of sanitation, electricity, transportation, stress, violence, and disease associated with density
What are the opportunities of increasing urbanization and population?access to healthcare, decline in fertility, population density pushing for efficient use of resources
Bucharest 1974 Convention Proposal and ResponseUS proposes that LICs should establish targets for lowering growth rates Response: LICs claim that development is the best contraceptive
Mexico City 1984 Convention Proposal and Responsebirth of the global gag rule, US under Reagan administration decides to pull out of support for regulating population growth and does not want to fund family planning and abortion Response: LICs look elsewhere for funding and create their own family planning programs
Cairo 1994woman's rights groups challenge government population control rationale and make the claim that health decisions are a right
What are some complications of pregnancy and birth in LDCs?Hemorrhage, Sepsis and infections, preeclampsia and eclampsia, unsafe abortion
Maternal Depletion Syndromeanemia and weakness and early aging

Section 2

Question Answer
Green RevolutionNorman Borlog experiments to increase food supply and quality, miracle wheat and rice major yield increase
What are the two factors of food demand?population growth and rising personal incomes leading to more refined tastes and desires
Basal Metabolic Ratetotal energy required for a human body to maintain and repair itself, excludes any other activities
Food Secureall people at all times within a population have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe, nutritious food that meets their dietary needs as well as preferences
What are the two main causes of hunger?poverty ($1/day), and distribution
Stuntinglack of required calories and nutrients leading to an irreversible decline in growth
KwashiorkorPEM, deficiency of protein in the diet leading to edema distended stomach, appetite loss, muscle waste, enlargement of liver, coma and death
MarasmusPEM, total Kcal deficiency
Vitamin A Deficiency and solutionleading causes of childhood blindness, maternal and infant mortality Solution: encouragement of breast feeding, 2x a year mega dosage, diet consumption
Iodine Deficiency and solutiongoiter and brain damage solution: iodized salt
Iron Deficiency and solutionanemia and premature birth solution: double fortified salt and supplements to pregnant women
Food Desertlocations that are off the beaten path and outside of distribution zones, composed of mom and pop stores that lack fruits and vegetables as they do not fit the profit maximization model

Section 3

Question Answer
USDAregulation of meat, poultry, processed eggs, can only recall under specific circumstances and the recall must be voluntary by the distribution company
FDAregulation of all that USDA does not including eggs, dairy, fruit and veggies, able to put out mandatory recalls, derives standards for quality in terms of contamination, inspects imports, regulates additives and antibiotics
Defect Action Levelslevels of contamination determined by the FDA
EPAestablishes tolerance levels of pesticides on crops
CDCregulates food bourne disease outbreaks and monitors effectiveness of control and prevention
Adulterantsdeliberately addition of inferior or cheaper materials to supposedly pure foods in order to increase yield
Contaminantsaccidentally incorporated into foods during processing and or harvesting etc., includes things like feces, fungal growth, pesticides, antibiotics, hormones
Additivesintentionally added to foods in order to modify taste, color, texture, nutritive value, and resistance to deterioration, they are not seen as harmful unless the chemical has proven negative effects
GRAS Listestablished watch list of additives regulated by the FDA, generally regarded as safe
What are the two main symptoms of food bourne disease?diarrhea and vomitting
What are the two most common food bourne viruses?usually passed on by fecal origin, norovirus and Hepatitis A
Salmonellafound in poultry, meat, eggs, milk, nuts and raw produce causes mild to moderate diarrhea and vomiting
Campylobacterfound in undercooked chicken, turkey, pork, raw clams and other shellfish and unpasteurized milk, moderate to severe symptoms, 10% have long term symptoms as meningitis
E. Colifound in ground beef, raw spinach, lettuce, alfalfa sprouts and unpasteurized juice, symptoms are severe commonly kidney failure and death
Listeriafound in unpasteurized cheese, spinach, cantaloupe, lunch meats, symptoms are severe causing septicemia, miscarriage, still birth, death
Staphylococcusfound in pimples, warts, boils and wounds, sputum, nail clippings etc., symptoms are acute to severe skin infection
Botulismfound in home canned low acid foods, deadly neurotoxin and the most severe food bourne illness
Norovirusfecal contamination of food, usually shellfish and salad, can spread from person to person with mild to moderate symptoms only lasting 1-2 days
Hepatitis A usually raw clams and oysters and contamination from dumpster causing severe permanent damage to the liver
Tape Wormraw fish mainly salmon can range from mild to moderate symptoms
Trichinellaraw uncooked meat, pork, bear, venison, mild to moderate symptoms

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