Global Enviro Exam 2 part one

achapss's version from 2017-04-11 00:22


Question Answer
What are the main tools for combating malaria?nets, indoor residual spraying, anti malarial drugs
What kind of diseases do mosquitos cause?dengue, zika, malaria
What is the issue with cockroaches in public health?high instance of secretions causing asthma in children
Stomach Poisoninsecticide taken in through the mouth to kill things like caterpillars
Fumigant insecticide kills through respiratory system of pest
Contact Poison insecticide absorbed through the pest body wall as organophosphate, pyrethroids, DDT, carbonophosphates
What is the miracle of DDT?it is broad spectrum meaning toxic to wide variety of pests, persistent not breaking down rapidly in the environment, inexpensive, water soluble, increased crop yield
Persistent insecticides and examplein the environment leaving a residue that breaks down very slowly good for farmers and malaria control but risky for the environment, prompt issues of bioaccumulation in human tissues, ex: chlorinated hydrocarbons
Non Persistant Insecticidesorganophosphate, carbamate, pyrethroids
organophosphate/carbamateacutely toxic non persistent insecticides
pyrethroidssynthetic insecticide from chrysanthemums, most commonly used, low toxicity to animals and humans
Glyphosateroundup, the worlds best selling herbicide
Target pest resurgencesudden increase in pests after non target species are killed by insecticides because natural enemies are gone
Secondary Pest Resurgencedifferent species controlled by natural enemies killed by pesticides accidentally grow an become a new pest
Silent Springbook by Rachel Carson that launched the modern environmental movement and indictment of pesticide misuses, connected DDT with interference of bird reproduction
What hazards to human health do pesticides present?acute= fatigue, dizziness, headache weakness chronic=difficult to diagnose evidence of disruption of endocrine and reproductive systems
Side effects of organophosphate insecticidesevere abdominal pain, vomitting, diarrhea, convulsions, difficulty breathing, coma, death
World Viewhow you think society should function based on how you were brought up and your own beliefs
Motivated Reasoningunconscious use of worldview to frame how you see a situation, motivation for a certain outcome
Emotion as a mental shortcuthow you perceive something depends on how it makes you feel
Anchoring as a mental shortcuttaking past experiences and claiming nothing could be worse than them
Social Amplification as a mental shortcutthe more we hear about something and the more it is relevant the more we perceive it to be a risk
Confirmation Bias as a mental shortcutonly listening to what you already believe and claiming anything else to be false
Finite Pool of Worry as a mental shortcutdiscounting risk of things because you already feel you worry about too much
Single Action Bias as a mental shortcutbelieving after you contributed one thing the problem is fixed and you dont need to do anything else
Status Quo Bias as a mental shortcutit is easier to stay the same than change
Solutionism as a mental shortcutbelieving someone else will find a solution later on
Optimism as a mental shortcutbad things will happen to other people but not me


Question Answer
how was the ozone created?ozone consists of O2 molecules constantly split by UV radiation that then form O3 molecules forming the ozone
how was the ozone depleted?human emitted hazardous chemicals including Chlorofluorocarbons and halons mix with the UV radiation and prompt faster break down
O3highly reactive ozone
Chlorofluorocarbonscomponent of refrigerants and aerosol sprays detrimental to the ozone
Halonsfire suppressants that dont break down but drift up toward the atmosphere
Dynamic Equilibriumthe constant breakdown of O2 and O3 forming in the atmosphere
Montreal Protocolresult of the discovery of the dangers of the depleting ozone layer, freezing and reduction of CFC call but will not reverse damage already done as they persist in the atmosphere
Why is the global climate changing?rising levels of CO2 and greenhouse gases in the atmosphere
What are the primary causes of CO2 emissions?77% fossil fuel and cement production and 23% destruction of vegetation and deforestation
MethaneCH4 greenhouse gas more damaging than CO2, more than 50% comes from agriculture, rest from landfills, fossil fuels, deforestation
Nitrous OxideN2O greenhouse gas, increasing rapidly, soil fertilizer microbes, fossil fuels, breakdown of waste and sewage
Positive feedback loopsfactors that increase the rate of global warming examples include water vapor and ice feedback, permafrost melting, warming of oceans and the collapse of the amazon
how do we know that GHG emissions are impacting the climate?greenhouse effect theory, ice core analysis, melting sea and mountain glaciers, oceans heating and acidifying b/c absorbing CO2, shifting migration of species
What are the impacts of global warming?shifting rain patterns, extreme weather events, rising sea levels, lack of biodiversity, diminishing crop yields, vector bourne disease increase, malnutrition, water and sanitation, displacement of people
Framework Convention of climate change control 1992called for voluntary reduction of GHG emissions from developed countries, unsuccessful
Kyoto Protocol 1997mandatory emissions reductions for 38 developed countries, reductions have been modest
Copenhagen Accord 2009not legally binding but both developing and developed countries agreed to terms goals set for 2020 on terms to mitigate GHG emissions, it has been determined that goals aren't good enough to impact climate change
What are other potential policy strategies for reducing emissions?carbon tax, cap and trade, technology
Carbon Taxstraightforward tax for unhealthy emissions
Cap and Tradethe government sets a cap for allowed level of CO2 emission in a given period, industry is allowed to trade to add up to total emissions, can sell unused emission amounts
Technology for reducing emissionsrenewable energy, clean coal, nuclear power plants