Global Enviro Exam 2 Part 2

achapss's version from 2017-04-10 17:59


Question Answer
What is the difference between ionizing and non ionizing radiation?ionizing radiation waves are strong enough to dislodge electrons from encountered atoms leaving behind ionic charged particles, non ionizing radiation does not and comes from sources as microwaves UV light etc.
What is the main concern with ionizing energy vs non?non is just skin cancer from UV, ionizing is DNA damage leading to cancer and fetal mutations and defect of sex cells
Radonnatural source of ionizing radiation, gas from radioactive decay of uranium, dilutes to harmless concentrations with space but confined dangerous, alpha particles inhaled causing lung cancer any amount causes risk
Action Levelslevels at which home owners are advised to take caution and remedial action
Cosmic Radiationnatural source ionizing radiation high energy particles made of protons and neutrons, from outer space and the sun after solar flares, most is blocked by atmosphere, exposure is less at sea level and increased with long time flights
Terrestrialnatural source of radiation, compounds found in soil and rocks there are hot spots with higher levels including florida, new hampshire, rocky man
internal radiationmostly natural sources, radioactive sources take residence in body tissues
Medical Radiationman made greatest source of exposure
Clarence Dalythomas edisons assistant that died of radiation exposure, lost limbs, oozing ulcers, burns, death
Nuclear Weapon Fallouttesting of weapons and atomic fission products, most intense near test site day following explosion, isotopes can enter human and impact thyroid
Gray GYlevel of radiation measurement amount per unit of mass material
Sievert SVrelative biological effectiveness, potential for damaging tissues
What are the known outcomes of high levels of radiation and what is considered a high level?1 Sv or more within minutes or hours, can lead to radiation sickness early on and later on cancer of bone, lung thyroid
Three Mile Islandreactor partial meltdown no noticeable impact on workers, but turned public against nuclear power
Chernobylroutine shutdown led to reduction of power to reactor and multiple explosions, plume of radiation over europe and mass evacuation, led to increased thyroid issue from contaminated milk and mosty just mental health issues
Fukushimamajor earthquake then loss of power to three reactors after tsunami, no deaths from radiation after or during explosion but from evacuation and natural disaster effects


Question Answer
What are the sources of air pollution in order from greatest to leasttransportation, power plants, industry, burning refuse for indoor heating
What are the top six criteria air pollutantsparticulate matter, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxide, ozone, lead
Particulate Matterany airborne pollutant in solid or liquid form, the smaller the more dangerous
sulfur dioxidenot harmful on its own but with water vapor and other acidic compounds irritating the respiratory system and plant growth
carbon monoxidebinds to hemoglobin in blood displacing oxygen
Nitrogen oxideyellow smog appearance, from gas stoves, respiratory issues, acid rain
Photochemical smogformed by ozone irritates mucous membranes of respiratory system
Sick building syndromeresidents of building become sick but it can not be discovered what the cause of their sickness is
symptoms of temporary hearing losstinnitus, lasts for a few hours, not necessarily meaning long term damage
Sensorineural hearing losslower frequency sounds irreversible damage cannot be restored with a hearing device
Conductive hearing losshearing loss due to trauma can often be fixed with surgery
What are the effects of hearing loss?loss low frequency sounds and ability to decipher and understand, psychosocial impact, permanent tinnitus, stress, sleep disruption, function, learning ability
Water stressthose with less than 1700 cubic meters of water per person annually
Water Scarcitythose with less than 1000 cubic meters of water per person annually
Acute water scarcitythose with less than 1000 cubic meters per person annually, insufficient for adequate food and sanitation
What are common groundwater pollutant sourcespetroleum, landfill seepage, household septic systems, unintentional spills and leaks
What is the largest groundwater aquifer?US ogallala
Tragedy of commonsusers of the same resource act independently and rationally behaving contrary to the common good and deplete that source
Point sources of water qualitywell defined locations that are easy to locate and fix where pollutants reach water sources
Non point sources of water qualityrunoff or seepage into waterways that are difficult to control
Eutrophicationdissolved nutrients enter a body of water acting as a fertilizer to stimulate growth of algae leading to hypoxic zones when algae dies off
Sedimentationwater is held for 24 hours so that heavy medals come out
Coagulationaluminum sulfate is added to the water to enable suspended solids to sink and be filtered out
Filtrationthrough sand etc to remove protozoa from water
Disinfectionchemicals added to water to rid remains
Methemoglobinanitrates turning babies skin blue and asphyxiation
Clean Water Act 1972congressional goals for water quality and funding for improvements as well as requirements for EPA regulation
National Water Quality InventoryEPA compilation of data
Clean Water Action Planencourages states to adopt enforceable controls for non point sources as funding incentives for runoff control
What is the most important intervention in public health ?provision of adequate sewage treatment sources and chlorination of drinking water, has been more helpful that vaccines

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