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GIT- Pathology

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drnieves's version from 2017-06-21 13:37

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Question Answer
Celiac diseaseAutoimmune intolerance to gliadin. Anti endo-mysial, anti tissue transglutaminase, anti gliadin ab; blunting of villi and lymphocytes in lamina propia.
Celiac diseaseAss HLA-DQ2, HLA-DQ8, dermatitis herpetiformis, decrease bone density.
Celiac diseaseDistal duodenum and/or proximal jejunum
Disaccharidase deficiencyLactase deficiency. Normal appearing villi.
Lactose deficiencySince lactase is at tip of villi, self limited deficiency can happen after injury.
Pancreatic insufficiency causesCF, obstructing cancer, chronic pancreatitis.
Pancreatic insufficiency consecuenciasA,D,E,K, B12D
D xylose absorption testnormal urinary excretion in pancreatic insufficiency Decreased with intestinal mucosa defects or bacterial overgrowth
Tropical sprue (environmental enteropathy)Responds to antibiotics. Tropics
Whipple diseaseTropheryma whipplei (+)
Whipple diseasePAS + foamy macrophages in lamina propia, mesenteric nodes. Cardiac sx, arthralgias, neuro sx
Duodenal atresiaFailure of recanalization in 8-10 w
Duodenal atresiaBileous/ non bileous vomiting, double bubble sign
Duodenal atresiaAss with Down syndrome
jejunum/ ileum atresiaVascular injury
Jejunum/ ileum atresiaBilleous vomiting, abdominal distention
Jejunum/ileum atresiaAss with gastroschisis
Colonic atresiaConstipation, abdominal distention
Colonic atresiaAss with Hirschsprung's
HemochromatosisIron deposition. Prussian blue stain
HemochromatosisMicronodular cirrhosis, bronze diabetes
Results in HF, testicular atrophy, increase risk of CCHemochromatosis
1ry hemochromatosisDue to C282Y or H63D mutation in HFE gene, associated with HLA-A3.
HemochromatosisDelayed in women due to menstruation.
Hemochromatosis txRepeated phlebotomy, deferasirox, deferoxamine, deferiprone.
Systemic mastosistosisMast cell proliferation in BM, skin, and other organs
Associated with mutations in KIT R tyrosine kinase. Prominent expression of tryptaseSystemic mastosistosis
Systemic mastosytosis effectExcess histamine= flushing, syncope, hypotension, pruritus, urticaria, gastric ulceration.
Ulcerative colitisRectum always involved. Inflammation limited to mucosa and submucosa. Mucosal damage is continuous
Chron'sTransmural inflammation, perianal fistulae, non caseating granulomas.
SIBOAfter bypass surgery. Bacterial proliferation increase vit. K and folate.
Adult appendicitisObstruction by fecalith
Children appendicitislymphoid hyperplasia
Duodenal ulcerPain decreases with meals. 100% caused by H. Pylori. Decreased mucosal protection and increased acid.
Duodenal ulcer ass withZollinger-Ellison syndrome, COPD.
Hypertrophy of Brunner glandsDuodenal ulcer
Brunner glandsIn duodenum. Secrete HCO3.
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Abetalipoproteinemia ; Inability to synthesize apoB (VLDL, Chylomicrons).
Question Answer
Low cholesterol, TAG Deficiency of fat soluble vitamins and essential FA. Clear foamy enterocytesabetalipoproteinemia.
AbetalipoproteinemiaAR. MTP gene. Acanthosytes and neuro sx.
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