GIT drugsz

olola's version from 2016-11-07 03:17


Question Answer
H+K+ATPase pump is present in the ______ of gastric cellsbasolateral membrane
proton pump inhibitors affect absorption of certain drugs how?reduces absorption of ketoconazole, increases absorption of digoxin; interferes with metabolism of diazepam, warfarin, phenytoin
which proton pump inhibitor has the greatest drug interactions?Omeprazole (Prilosec)- OTC drug
H2 receptor antagonist with the most side effectsCimetidine/Tagamet - inhibit liver microsomal enzymes, impotency, gynecomastia, impaired renal function in elderly
for all patients with H. Pylori ulcers, it is recommended to treat them withanti-secretory drug with 2 or more antimicrobial agents (Prevpac = lansoprazole + clarithromycin + amoxicilin bid for 2 weeks)
M1 antagonist used to treat peptic ulcersPirenzepine, an antimuscarinic agent
PGE1 derivative with some cytoprotective effect used to treat peptic uclers; big side effect with this?Misoprostol (Cytotec); abortifacient potential!!
rebound effect is associated with these anti-ulcer drugsgastric antacids (Sodium bicarb, magnesium salts, aluminum salts, calcium carbonate, alginic acid, sucralfate)
anti-ulcer drug that causes Na overload and systemic alkalosissodium bicarb
associated with kidney stonemagnesium trisilicate
laxative effect associated with this anti-ulcer drugmagnesium hydroxide (milk of magnesia), thus usually combined with aluminum hydroxide to reduce laxative effect
anti-ulcer drug that can cause constipationcalcium carbonate, aluminum hydroxide- prolonged use can cause PO4 depletion, commonly combined with Magnesium hydroxide to reduce laxative effect
anti-ulcer drug that can cause constipation, has chalky taste, can cause acid reboundcalcium carbonate
anti-ulcer drug that is added to increase effectiveness of Antacid sodium bicarbalginic acid- will form Sodium Alginate in presence of saliva > protective foam and surface cover
is alginic acid an antacid?NO! it is just added to increase the effectiveness of the antacid sodium bicarb
ulcer-adherent complex of aluminum hydroxide + suflated sucrosesucralfate (ulcar, Carafate)- used for duodenal ulcers, forms a viscous suspension for cytoprotection
treatment for duodenal ulcerssucralfate (ulcar, Carafate), forms a viscous suspension for cytoprotection
is sucralfate an antacid?NO! it does not have antacid proeprties, it's a complex that forms viscous suspension providing cytoprotection and maintains vascular integrity and bloodf low
this anti-ulcer drug has effect of cations on absorption/chelation of tetracyclinemagnesium hydroxide (milk of magnesia)
anti-ulcer drugs that inhibit liver enzymesCimetidine/Tagamet, Omeprazole
emetic drugs are being replaced with ______activated charcoal
OTC emetic drugsyrup of ipecac- contains emetine alkaloid acting centrally on CTZ and locally in GIT, used both for emesis and expectorant
non-OTC emetic drugApomorphine- dopamine agonist derived from morphine, stimulates CTZ, antagonized by naloxone
______ contain 90% of body's store of serotoninenterochromaffin cells lining GIT lumen
serotonin is released in response to increased vagal tone via ______ receptor stimulation, leading to nausea and vomiting5HT3
antiemetic drugs mainly affect ______ receptorsH1, D2, 5HT3
Scopalamine is used as a drug forantimuscarinic (reduce saliva or as a preanesthetic), antispasmodic, antiemetic (for motion sickness)
dopamine antagonists that inhibit CTZ used for nausea from postop emesis, pregnancy and cancer chemotherapyPhenothiazines (chlorpromazine, promethazine)- less effective for motion sickness resulting from ACh-mediated vestibular disturbances
H1 receptor antagonist used for motion sickness or sedative for postop use, can pass placenta barrier, not effective for cancer chemotherapyDiphenhydramine (Benadryl), Promethazine, Meclizine
treatment for cytotoxic (cancer) drugs-induced emesisMetoclopramide, Domperidone, Ondansetron (Zofran), Cannabinoids (Dronabinol)
side effects are extrapyramidal symptoms and sedationMetoclopramide (Prempan), a D2 and 5HT3 antagonist, used to treat cytotoxic (cancer) drugs-induced emesis
can cause mental confusion (potential abuse), but best tx for nauseacannabinoids (Dronabinol), used to treat cytotoxic (cancer) drugs-induced emesis
bulk-forming Laxativespsyllium, methylcellulose (Metamucil), bran, plantago prep, - have low systemic effects
saline (osmotic) Laxativesmagnesium hydroxide, lactulose, glycerine, polyethylene glycol- used prior to endoscopy
____ is a laxative contraindicated in renal diseasemagnesium hydroxide and magnesium sulfate
______ are given together for endoscopyDolcolax + polyethylene glycol
stimulant (irritant) Laxativescastor oil (ricinoleic acid), bicacodyl, senna, cascara- stimulates enteric nerves and increases fluid movement into lumen
Laxatives: wetting agents and lubricantsmineral oil, docusate
prolonged use of _____ reduces fat soluble vitamin absorptionmineral oil (liquid petrolatum)
hydrated Mg, Al silicate used to treat acute mild diarrheaAttapulgit
antidiarrheal agent that promotes reabsorption of fluid and decreases stool volume by increasing contact timecodeine
opioid-like drug that has CNS depression, allergy and GI disturbance as side effectsLoperamide (Imodium)- haloperidol + diphenoxylate derivative
congener of meperidine with less addition liability, used to treat diarrhea, side effects of xerostomia, gingival swelling, potentiation of CNS depression and respiratory depressionDiphenoxylate
______ = Diphenoxylate + AtropineLomotil- antidiarrheal
drugs to prevent traveler's diarrheabismuth subsalicylate (peptobismol), trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole, doxycycline
never give a child this antidiarrheal drugbismuth subsalicylate (peptobismol), b/c it has aspirin products and cause Reye's syndrome > liver and brain damage
GI stimulantsBethanecol, Metoclopramide, Cisapride
GI stimulant useful for diabetic gastroparesismetoclopramide
antispasmodic agents for IBSLoperamide, Anticholinergics (belladonna alkaloids, dicyclamine, propantheline)