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GI & Surgery 5

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oelomar's version from 2016-05-13 19:04

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Question Answer
What is traveller’s diarrhoea?At least 3 loose to watery stools in 24 hours with or without one or more of abdominal cramps, fever, nausea, vomiting or blood in the stool.
What is the most common causative agent of traveller’s diarrhoea?Escherichia coli.
What is “acute food poisoning” and what is it typically caused by?This describes the sudden onset of nausea, vomiting and diarrhoea after the ingestion of a toxin. Acute food poisoning is typically caused by Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus or Clostridium perfringens.
What are the stereotypical symptoms in a person who has ingested Escherichia coli?Watery stools, abdominal cramps, and nausea. E.coli is the most common cause of traveller’s diarrhoea.
What are the stereotypical symptoms in a person with Giardiasis?Prolonged, non-bloody diarrhoea, and other non-specific symptoms.
What are the stereotypical symptoms in a person with cholera?Large amounts of watery diarrhoea that lasts a few days, and severe dehydration resulting in weight loss. It is not common amongst travellers.
What are the stereotypical symptoms in a person who has ingested Shigella?Bloody diarrhoea, vomiting, and abdominal pain.
What are the stereotypical symptoms in a person who has ingested Staphylococcus aureus?Severe vomiting one to six hours after ingestion of the toxin, with recovery in eight to 24 hours.
What are the stereotypical symptoms in a person who has ingested Campylobacter?A flu-like prodrome (early symptom indicating the onset of a disease or illness) is usually followed by crampy abdominal pains, fever and diarrhoea which may be bloody. Complications include Guillain-Barre syndrome.
What are the stereotypical symptoms in a person who has ingested Bacillus cereus?Two types of illnesses are seen: - Vomiting within 6 hours, stereotypically due to rice (“fried rice syndrome”); - Diarrhoeal illness occurring after 6 hours.
What are the stereotypical symptoms in a person with amoebiasis?Gradual onset bloody diarrhoea, abdominal pain and tenderness which may last for several weeks. Amoebiasis can cause severe amoebic dysentery and liver and colonic abscesses.
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Question Answer
What is the incubation period of Staphylococcus aureus?1-6 hours.
What is the incubation period of Bacillus cereus?The vomiting subtype has an incubation period of 1-6 hours. The diarrhoeal subtype has an incubation period of 6-14 hours.
What is the incubation period of salmonella?12-48 hours.
What is the incubation period of Escherichia coli?12-48 hours.
What is the incubation period of Shigella?48-72 hours.
What is the incubation period of Campylobacter?48-72 hours.
What is the incubation period of Giardiasis?7 days.
What is the incubation period of amoebiasis?7 days.
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Question Answer
What is the most common aetiology of infectious diarrhoea?Campylobacter.
How is gastroenteritis treated?Oral rehydration solution. Antibiotics have a subsidiary role, and may be given depending on the causative agent.
How would one typically become infected with E.coli?Ingestion of contaminated food, namely raw/undercooked meat.
What is irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and what are its features?A functional gastrointestinal disorder which is a disorder of the gut-brain axis. It is defined as recurrent abdominal pain associated with 2 or more of the following: 1- Pain improves with defecation; 2- Change in stool frequency; 3- Change in appearance of stool. Features such as lethargy, nausea, backache, and bladder symptoms may also support the diagnosis.
What symptom precedes the onset of IBS symptoms in 7-30% of patients?Infectious diarrhoea.
What is the first-line treatment for IBS?It depends on what the predominant symptom is. If it is pain, treatment is with antispasmodic agents. Constipation=laxatives (but avoid lactulose). Diarrhoea=loperamide.
What is the second-line treatment for IBS?Low-dose TCAs.
What is amoebic dysentery and how is it treated?Infection of the intestines resulting in severe diarrhoea with the presence of blood and mucus in the faeces. Treatment is with metronidazole.
What is an amoebic liver abscess?A type of liver abscess caused by amoebiasis. It is usually a single mass in the right lobe (may be multiple). Features include fever and right upper quadrant pain.
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