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Geology Exam

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solojiwo's version from 2016-10-27 13:06

Section

Question Answer
1. As pure water approaches its freezing point, the density decreases. Why does this happen?B. The hydrogen bonds become rigid, allowing it to expand slightly.
2. Why is sensible heat detectable while heat that is not sensible cannot be measured?D. A thermometer measures the decrease in temperature, but as liquid changes to solid, the loss of heat is not measurable.
3. What is the structure of carbon dioxide an example of?C. Compound
4. What is the main reason for the stratification in the north polar waters?B. Salinity
5. How is sound transmitted through a medium?c. By rapid pressure changes in a medium
6. What is thermal inertia?b. The propensity for a substance to resist temperature changes.
7. Which water mass is characterized by increasing density with deeper depths?C. Pycnocline zone
8. What is a shadow zone?D. A zone where the divergence of sound waves creates a region that has little sound energy penetration.
9. What effect does temperature and pressure have on the speed of sound when entering seawater?C. The speed of sound decreases as temperature and pressure decrease.
10. What visible light wave is almost completely absorbed and converted to heat within the first few meters of the ocean?A. Red light waves
11. ____ connect(s) atoms by sharing the energy of paired electrons. A. Covalent bonds
12. Why does the ocean not boil or freeze solid in different regions of the world? C. Heat is transported by oceanic and atmospheric circulation.
13. What contributes to the high biological activity and surface nutrients in southern polar waters?D. All are contributing factors
14. Why is ice effective at cooling drinks? C. The latent heat of fusion.
15. Which statement is not true of the relationship between latitude and ocean characteristics?C. Temperate waters have the largest variation in salinity.
16. What is the name for a zone that decreases in temperature with depth?B. Thermocline
17. Which does not have an effect on water's density?C. Viscosity
18. The pycnocline isolates the majority of the world ocean from:D. All of these choices conditions.
19. What is the only substance to have a higher heat capacity than liquid water?C. Ammonia
20. What allows water to be a polar molecule? D. The angular shape of the molecule
21. Why does the latent heat of vaporization require so much heat energy? D. All of these choices.
22. How does the absorption of light provide heat energy in the ocean?B. The light makes water molecules vibrate and then the electromagnetic energy is converted to heat energy.
23. The refractive index of seawater:A. is greater than freshwater.
24. What is the difference between adhesion and cohesion?C. Adhesion is the tendency of water molecules to stick to solids while cohesion is the property that allows water molecules to stick to each other.
25. Which is not a characteristic of thermoclines?D. Thermoclines are more abrupt in the high latitudes.
26. Why is the sofar layer efficient for sound travel? A. Refraction causes the sound energy to remain within the layer.
27. What important characteristic of water is the blue color attributed to?D. The hydrogen bonds
28. What is true of heat capacity?B. It is the measure of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram by 1° Celsius.
29. Why does sound travel rapidly though the lower well-mixed surface layer?B. Temperature and salinity are homogeneous
30. What is the typical depth of light penetration in the open ocean?b. 100 meters
31. What is the Forchhammer's principle?b. The constant proportion of solids in seawater
32. What is a solute?B. A substance that dissolves into another substance
33. What is not true of a mixture?c. A mixture is able to disperse homogenously.
34. What causes a decrease in oxygen levels beyond the sunlit layer?a. The respiration from marine animals and bacteria.
35. What is not a factor on the salinity of a particular region of ocean?D. Saturation levels
36. What type of water mass dissolves the most amounts of gases? d. Polar water masses
37. What is the average length of time an atom spends in the ocean?c. Residence time
38. What enhances the ocean's buffering capacity?A. The amount of dissolved inorganic carbon present
39. What is the colligative property of osmotic pressure?b. The pressure exerted on biological membranes from salinity differences outside the cells.
40. What is the greatest source of oxygen in deep water?d. Polar waters that have sunk from the surface
41. Water is able to dissolve ____ due to its polarity.C. ionic bonds
42. What is the source of high carbon dioxide levels at middle depths in the ocean?A. The decay of the remains of organisms
43. Which element would be surprisingly considered a trace element in the ocean despite its abundance in the atmosphere? d. Nitrogen
44. What affects the residence time of an element?c. Its chemical activity in water
45. What is the source of most of the dissolved materials found in the ocean?C. Dissolving and weathering of crustal rocks
46. Which essential gas is often in an unusable form in the ocean and atmosphere?A. Nitrogen
47. The level of ____ increases with depth which is a factor in the calcium carbonate compensation depth.c. Carbon Dioxide
48. How was salinity measured before the use of salinometers?A. Silver nitrate was used to measure the chlorinity
49. What happens to pH levels in regions where there is more carbon dioxide present?c. The pH levels decrease in these regions.
50. Why is the amount of carbon dioxide dissolved in seawater much less than the theoretical maximum saturation level? C. Carbon dioxide is quickly used by photosynthetic organisms.
51. Why does oil not dissolve in water?c. It is not a polar molecule.
52. What factor allows for the carbon present in sediments to re-enter back into atmospheric and oceanic cycles? d. All of these choices
53. What is the approximate mixing time of the ocean?B. 1,600 years
54. What does carbon dioxide break down into once it is in the ocean?D. All of these choices
55. What is the average pH of the ocean?C. 8.0
56. What is diffusion?D. The random movement of materials through a solution
57. How do salinometers measure salinity?C. It measures the electrical conductivity of seawater samples.
58. Which item is not considered to have a basic pH? b. Black coffee
59. What is the term for ocean components not accounted for by the weathering of continents? b. Excess volatiles
60. Why are some tropical waters unable to sustain life?b. There is a low level of dissolved oxygen due to temperature.
61. What causes the solar heating of Earth to have seasonal variations? b. The tilt of the Earth's axis from the sun
62. What is true of the intertropical convergence zone?c. It is subject to seasonal variations.
63. What moves the water evaporated from the ocean's surface? D. Wind
64. How many atmospheric cells are present in each hemisphere?A. 3
65. Extratropical cyclones form between which two types of atmospheric cells?D. A polar cell and a Ferrel cell
66. What occurs at the boundaries of circulation cells?D. Winds move vertically where the boundaries meet
67. Why is air never completely dry?d. All of these choices
68. What caused the greatest loss of life and property during Hurricane Katrina? b. Storm surge
69. Why does the heat budget vary with latitude?A. The angle of the sun at varying latitudes
70. Where are the more complex atmospheric cells located? C. The mid-latitudes
71. Which is not an example of a tropical cyclone?b. Nor'easter
72. How do seasons affect the surface winds?b. During the northern winter, the surface winds shift to the south.
73. What is a cause of atmospheric circulation?D. The Coriolis Effect
74. If a ship is trying to sail from the eastern United States to Europe, what route would be the most efficient to take?D. A northern route to take advantage of the westerlies
75. Why are east-west variation patterns more pronounced in the middle latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere? B. There is an almost equal ration of land and water in the Northern Hemisphere.
76. Which are the most persistent surface winds?C. Easterlies
77. What causes most of the differences in winds in comparison to normal surface wind directions?D. All of these choices
78. Where do tropical cyclones come from?C. Within a single warm and humid air mass
79. What occurs when air is subjected to less pressure?C. The air rises in temperature.
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Question Answer
80. Where do the most intense summer monsoons occurA. Asia
81. What is not a factor in the amount of light penetrating the ocean?C. The amount of light absorbed by clouds
82. Horse latitudes at sea correspond to ____ on land.B. great deserts
83. What determines the availability of energy in a tropical cyclone?B. The storm needs to stay over warm waters
84. Why are there multiple atmospheric cells as air moves from the equator to the poles instead of one single cell?B. There are intermediate precipitation events which break up the air into circulation cells.
85. What is the term for a pattern of wind circulation that changes with season?B. Monsoon
86. What is the residence time of water vapor in the lower atmosphere?C. 10 days
87. What made the 2005 hurricane season so unusual?D. All of these choices
88. What is the name given by sailors to the area where Hadley cells converge?C. Doldrums
89. What is a storm surge?C. Movement of water due to the low atmospheric pressure creates a dome of water
90. What is the tendency of pausing air masses over land? C. They take on the characteristics of the land below them.
91. What thrusts water masses that are engaged in the thermohaline flow of the world's ocean?B. Gravity
92. If an eddy found in the Gulf Stream is rotating counterclockwise, then it is:B. a cold water eddy.
93. Which water mass is not produced by caballing?D. Mediterranean Deep Water
94. What is the name for slow, deep currents beneath the pycnocline?c. Thermohaline currents
95. How many water masses are common in tropical and temperate latitudes? C.Five
96. What is La Niña?C. A colder than normal circulation event
97. What is another name for undercurrents?C. Countercurrents
98. What powers a Slocum glider?D. All of these choices
99. What is considered to be the largest western boundary current?b. Gulf Stream
100. What mechanism is being used to gain new information regarding deep sea circulation?A. Acoustic tomography.
101. What does not affect surface currents?D. Density
102. Where is density stratification the least pronounced?b. Polar latitudes
103. What is not a characteristic of western boundary currents?D. They are broad currents.
104. What is used to visualize ocean layering?d. A temperature-salinity diagram
105. Why are fisheries heavily impacted by ENSO events? b. Nutrient-rich currents are interrupted when the trade winds shift
106. What maintains the permanent thermocline found at all low and mid-latitudes?A. Continual upwelling
107. What is a characteristic of Antarctic Bottom Water?a. Extreme density
108. What is a characteristic of an El Niño Southern Oscillation (ESNO)? d. All of these choices
109. What influences contour currents?C. Topography
110. What is responsible for the large-scale global ocean circulation?C. Thermohaline circulation
111. The Ekman spiral?B. The decreasingly slower movement of water as it gets further away from the wind source
112. What prevents North Atlantic Deep Water from moving on a large scale like the Antarctic Bottom Water?b. The topography of the basin
113. What is a gyre?B. A circular flow of water around the periphery of an ocean basin
114.Where does the largest amount of upwelling occur?A. Equatorial upwelling
115. How long does it take most deep water to rise to the surface?b. 200 to 300 years
116. What water mass is the most saline? b. Mediterranean Deep Water
117. What is not usually able to be measured by flow meters? c. Bottom waters
118. What direction would a gyre in the Southern Hemisphere flow towards?a. Left
119. What is the disadvantage of using drift bottles to study currents?c. The intermediate movements of the bottles are unknown.
120. Why is the West Wind Drift not a gyre?d. It does not flow around the margins of an ocean basin.
121. How fast do wave trains travel in relation to individual waves in that train?C. One-half as fast
122. What kind of waves occur at the boundary between two fluid media?B. Orbital waves
123. What can not initiate a seiche?d. Internal waves
124. Why does wave refraction occur?a. Wave lines approach shore and enter into different depths
125. What is a characteristic of a tsunami? b. Long wavelengths
126. What is the restoring force of a wave? b. The force that returns water to a calm state
127. What is a rogue wave? d. All of these choices
128. What is the process of wave separation? d. Dispersion
129. What type of wave is categorized as a deep-water wave?a. Capillary wave
130. Standing waves are important in the physics of what kind of wave?a. Seismic sea waves
131. What is a wave period? c. The time for a wave to move the distance of one wavelength
132. What maintains a forced wave? c. Disturbing force
133. When does a wave begin to interact with its bottom?b. When the bottom is shallower than the wavelength
134. What is a fetch?c. The uninterrupted distance over which wind blows
135. Why is a storm surge not considered a progressive wave?c. It is only a crest rather than a whole wave.
136. What type of ocean wave has a disturbing force of sudden changes in atmospheric pressure?a. Seiche waves
137. What occurs when waves hit an obstacle straight on?d. Wave reflection
138. What is the relative ratio of height to wavelength in a tsunami?c. It is extremely low.
139. What determines the characteristics of ocean waves?c. The wavelength and water depth
140. What kind of flow is important in driving the ocean surface currents?d. Stokes drift
141. What is not an important factor for the development of wind waves?b. Tides
142. What happens when a tsunami approaches the shore?d. All of these choices
143. What remains unchanged regardless of depth?c. Wave period
144. What generates internal waves?d. All of these choices
145. What causes ocean waves to form?b. Energy from the disturbing force
146. What is a sea?d.None of these choices
147. What occurs as a tsunami's circumference expands?B. The energy dissipates
148. How often do destructive tsunamis strike somewhere in the world?a. Approximately once a year
149. What drives a storm surge ashore?a. Frontal storms
150. What do tsunami warning networks use to monitor the sea surface? c. Seismometers
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