Geography Rock Cycle

kisferkate's version from 2017-04-13 18:38

Section 1

Question Answer
Igneous formedfirst
Sedimentary formedwhen igneous rock weathers
Metamorphic formed when Igneous or sedimentary rock partially melt due to heat or pressure
Limestone turns intomarble
shale turns intoSlate
Granite turns intoGneiss

Section 2

Question Answer
IntrusiveCools slowly, large crystals
ExtrusiveCools rapidly, small crystals
Granite (Intrusive)Coarse grain, cools slowly deep underground, light in color
Obsidian (intrusive)Cools so quickly, no crystals form, dark in color
Andesite (Extrusive)Med-fine grain, cools quickly near surface, light gray
Pumus (Extrusive)Eruptions cools fast, creating bubbles
BasaltFine Grain, cools rapidly on surface, dark

Section 3

Question Answer
SedimentaryOnly members of rock family that have fossils/indicate climate when rock formed
ClasticPhysical Weathering
NonclasticChemical Weathering
Clastic AConglomerate
Clastic BSandstone
Clastic CShale
Nonclastic ALimestone
Nonclastic BChalk
Nonclastic CCoal
Fine and DissolvedClay
Deep oceanSiltstone and shale

Section 4

Question Answer
JointsRocks lifted to surface, pressure released, cracks begin to form
Weathering on surfaceMechanical weathering, often freezing -> sharp edges
Chemical WeatheringLiquids react and break down softer minerals leaving harder minerals behind
PlutonsLarge slabs of marble
ExfoliationLayers come off
Differential weatheringMesas
Large mesas Cuesta
Erosion reduces mesas to towerButte
Soft rock like silt stone and shale formBadlands

Section 5

Question Answer
DivergentAway from one another
Mid-ocean ridgeSea away from sea, earthquakes
Continental Rift valleyContinent away from continent, volcanoes
ConvergentTowards Each other
Volcanic Mountain RangeSubduction (ocean under continent) Volcanoes and earthquakes
Volcanic Island ArcSubduction (sea under sea) Earthquakes and boundaries
Ocean TrenchSubduction, ocean under ocean, earthquakes and volcanoes
Continental mountainssubduction, continent under continent, earthquakes
TransformLinear Valley, earthquakes, ocean against ocean, continent against continent
Hot Spot island chains Plate over plume, volcanoes and earthquakes, hawaii and yellowstone
Ancient Mountain ChainCollision years ago, Appalachians, continent under continent, convergent then divergent.

Section 6

Question Answer
Principle of horizontalityRocks are laid in layers
unconformitySomething happened to bend the layers and then weathering occurred
Principle of super positionOldest rock on the bottom, youngest on the top
Principle of cross cutting relationsThe youngest is the one that cuts across, must have been filled in after joints were made
Huttonfather of modern geology
Compression-> () <-
Tension<- () ->
Range-\ /-
Shear sliding past each other

Section 7

Section 8

Section 9

Section 10