Geography final

kisferkate's version from 2017-05-11 06:51

Section 1

Question Answer
what caused this long cooling trendChanges in the Position of the Continents
When continents block east/west ocean currents near equatorclimate is cooler.
PlacentalsLive birth. Dominant mammal forms globally today.
MarsupialsLive birth premature with incubation in pouch. Opossums, kangaroos, koalas, etc.
Placentals dominant in the Northern Hemisphere
Marsupials dominant in thesouthern Hemisphere
Great American Interchangeconnection of the North and South American continents about 3-5 million years ago due to the northward shift of South America and movement of the Caribbean plate
BiogeographyThe distribution of plants and animals on earth
Dispersalthe ability of an individual to move
Active moving under one’s own power
Passivemovement of continents – plate tectonics; being carried on winds or ocean currents
Biomesbased on Structure (convergent evolution)
Monotremeslay eggs – native to Australia

Section 2

Question Answer
Buttressed trunkssoils are thin due to excessive rain and leaching, support themselves
lianasvines that climb to reach sun
Epiphytesplants that live on other plants but get their nutrients from the air
rainforest plantsglossy leaves, pointed "drip-tip"
Evergreen Leavessun all year long
big leavestake in max sunlight in dark canopies

Section 3

Question Answer
Tropical grassland/savanna dominated by a combination of trees and grasses and large grazing animals
Charismatic megafaunalarge grazing mammals
are DECIDUOUS in the dry seasonSavanna trees, they lose their leaves.
Uncharismatic microfaunagrazing termites in their termite mounds

Section 4

Question Answer
Midlatitude grasslandsdry grasses
Short grassdry
tall grasswet
Cornreplaced tall grass prairie
Wheatreplaced short grass prairie

Section 5

Question Answer
Desertsdry year-round with minimal moisture
Pleated trunks expand to store water
Leaves reduced to protective needles prevent water loss
Photosynthesis in the trunk reducing water loss from leaves
Succulent cellsstore water
Upright growth avoids midday sun
Phreatophytesdeep roots into the water table
annualscomplete their life cycle in a short period after rains
white hairs increase albedo to reduce heat
cold deserts dominated by shrubs.

Section 6

Question Answer
Mediterranean climates wet in winter and hot and dry in summer
Mediterranean florashrubs dominant, with some scattered trees
Sclerophyllousleaves (tough, leathery, drought tolerant)
Leaves are held vertical avoid midday sun
Chaparral leavesEvergreen
Fire adapted resprout or seed following fires
large burls under the soil after the plant top burns, they sprout vigorously
serotinousglued closed by pitch while the tree lives, and only open to spread seed when there is a fire

Section 7

Question Answer
Broadleaf forests climates
coniferstrees with needles
conical shapeallows them to shed snow

Section 8

Question Answer
Biogeographic Realms based on Species (evolutionary history)
Alfred Russell Wallacethe father of biogeography
Wallace's Linewestern side of this line, species were Asian in origin, and on the eastern side they were similar to Australia
Angiospermsflowering plants
Great American Interchangenorthward shift of South America and movement of the Caribbean plate led to
During ice ages, low sea level created land bridge between Asia and North America allowing species to disperse
Martin’s Overkill Hypothesishumans killed many animals at large rates
Holarcticn. america, euro, russia
Neotropicals. america
capetip of africa

Section 9

Question Answer
last glacial maximum18,000 years ago
Mass balance more snow falls in winter than melts in summer
Firnsnow that lasts through the summer
Glaciers weather and erode rock through mechanical weathering
aretesSharp ridges separating glacial valleys
Hanging Valley formed when one valley cuts into another valley and the stream becomes a waterfall
Fjorda drowned U-shaped valley
Material deposited by ice, unsortedtill
Glacial outwash plain deposited by watersediments are sorted
Melting ice in a moraine creates lakes kettles
Melting ice in a moraine creates hillskames
Variation in the shape of Earth's orbit around the suneccentricity (orbit)
Changes in angle of Earth's axis obliquity (Tilt)
Change in direction of the Earth's axis of rotationprecession (Wobble)

Section 10

Question Answer
Glacial pulverized rock, silt depositsloess
Land clearance changes to earth’s albedo
Fires for clearing land more CO2 emitted
Expansion of rice agriculture more methane produced

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