GEOG of Great Britain 3

swimmergirl171994's version from 2015-05-12 03:19

Section 1

Question Answer
Jethro Tull(1674-1741) Made contributions in planting crops in rows and cultivation. Wrote about crop rotation in his book, Horse-hoeing Husbandry in 1731
James Watt(1765) Created the steam engine. Used in deep shaft mining in coal mines. Steam removed water from mine. Helped Iron industry which machine depended on
Adam SmithTermed Laissez Faire. Wrote the Wealth of Nations, which rejected Mercantilism, and dicusssed supply and demand.
Corn Laws(1815) They were a tariff tax that created raised artificial prices. Popular among land and property owners
Peterloo Massacre(1819) A result of the Corn Laws. Only 11 died, over 400 wounded. Corn Laws were repealed in 1846
Great Reform Bill(1832) Poltical reform, not social reform. First time that there was a rearrangement of the boroughs. A representation change after the growth in some areas due to the industrial revolution. King William IV supported bill due to his fear of a revolution
Factory Act(1833 and 1844) Both restrict the hours that children could work. The first prohibited children under 9 from working and student must go to school for at least 2 hours a day. Second restrict hours to 6.5 a day (ages 9-16).
ChartistA Labor Organization that demanded reform. The People's Charter was adoptedin 1848 which allowed for Parliment to be paid. The 1 excpetion was annual elections

Section 2

Question Answer
Queen Victoria(1837-1901) She married in 1840 to her first cousin Prince Albert. The marrige was true love and devotion. In this marriage she had nine children, all which were married into other European royalty.
Great Exhibition(1851) The first true Worlds Fair. It was displayed inthe Cystral Palace, the largest enclosed spae in the world.
Victorian CitiesRapid increase of city population (20 million in 1851 to 26 million in 1871). A wage increase for middle class, but an increase of homelessness and pollution.
Victorian EmpiresBritish increase control of India after Suez Canal. Victoria termed "Empress of India"
Crimean War(1853-1856) France, Turks and English against Russia. 30% of forces died of disease. Resulted in a weakened Russia and the English staying away from continental affairs.
Florence NightingaleShe protested for cleaner conditions- changing sheets, cleaning wounds, cleaning doctors supplies. Because of her Mortality rates had dropped by 40% to just 2%. Termed the founder of Modern Nursing
The Trent Affair(1861) Strained relations with US North and England. North seize British ship w. Southern officers. Lincoln said let them go "One war at a time"
The Sepoy Mutiny(1857) Native Soliders from India revolted against British. Natives held a massacre in Delhi, British countered. Natives were outnumbered 6 to 1
Reform Bill(1867) Created by poor harvest and unemployment in 1866. The bill increased suffrage, and removed unneeded Boroughs of an unpopulated area.
Walliam GladstoneLiberal Party. Elected in 1832. Wanted an Increase efficiency of government
Benjamin DisraeliConservative. Creator of Reform Act of 1867
Education Act(1870) first piece of legislation to deal specifically with the provision of education. Created a system of school board and in 1880 elementary school was mandatory
Trade Union Act(1875) An act that made Unions completely legal
Sale of Food & Drug Act(1875) Banned ingredients in food deemed “injurious to health”
Suez Canal(1875) Took Control from France. Became Britains lifeline to Indian trade
Congress of Berlin(1878) Created to stablize Balkan region- Ottomans gaining too much power. England gained Cyprus as a naval base. Russia get a port
Boer War(1899-1902) British tried to take over the Dutch Boers– Dutch fought them off– used Russian guns. British outnumbered. War was costly, people began to question if Imperialism was worth the cost.

Section 3

Question Answer
King Edward VII(1901-1910) Contrast of his mother- enjoyed good things in life. Time of luxury in the upper classes
Campbell-BannermanLiberals took power due to Tariff Reform. There was no cohesive platform and it was the first middle class parliment
Old-Age Pension(1908) Pension for people over 70. Same year there was an 8 hour daily limit to miners. This was the first limitation of adult males.
Trade Board Act(1909) Churchill promoted Minimum wage and maximum hours
"Revolt of Peers"Lloyd George instituted the income tax fought by the Fought by the House of Lords
Parliament Act(1911) House of Lords is reduced to symbolic gesture. An no longer does the King appoint Cabinet. It is now the duty of the PM
National Health Insurance(1911) provided health for all workers making less than 160 pounds. Followed with the National Insurance Act or unemployment (1911)
Home Rule Bill(1914) Ireland wants to become indepent, Ulster (North I) does not. Home Rule was to take affactin Sep. 1914 but WWI began

Section 4

Question Answer
Russo-Japanese War(1904-05) Test for seek alliance with Japan. IMPACTS are 1.Europe’s superiority is based by technological advance 2. Russia is humiliated 3. Awakened Asian nationalism
Entente Cordiale(1904) Choice between siding with Germany or France. British mad becuase Germany was attepmting to compete with British Navy
Morocco CrisisWas a result of Entente between France and England. Germany wanted to break the two up so they created and supplied a revolt in Morocco (French territory). Germany had the hopes of England siding with Morocco because of the histroic hatered between Engalnd and France. Both nations saw what Germany was trying to do.
Anglo-Russian Convention(1907) Eased tension between the two countries in regards to the Middle East, India, and Far East. Vital that England is doing all these thing because England worries about War with Germany
Anglo- German Naval Arms RaceAlfred von Tirpitz believes that Germany needs a navy. English create the Dreadnought battle ship. A Large navy was necessary for the protection of importing food.
Battle of Jutland(May 1916) One naval battle in the entire war. Last great confrontation of naval sea battle. North Sea is hazy, cloudy cannot sea all their ships. Relied on Morse code but that does not work because no one is knowing who is talking to who. Both parties retreated. British lost opportunity destroy the Germans after German retreat. Again Commanders fail at changing plan.
Treaty of Versailles(Nov. 11, 1918) No one completely satisfied. Balance of power restored. Lloyd George argued to help Germany because England would have benefit with trade and industry. Economist included- John Maynard Keynes (Keynesian approach). First time calculate life of a man.
The Flapper(1920s) Similar to US, culturally but not economically. Divorces were easier to obain, church numbers lowered, birth control clinics opened. 1921-1938 depression hit. 1 of 7 unemployed.
Spirir of LocarnoLocarno Treaty – respecting boundaries of the new created states. Establishes the idea that civilzation has been saved. Outlaw of War with the Kellogg-Briand Pact of 1928
The Great Strike(1926) Started in coal industry. Considered a failure because the economy is not in a state to help them
National Government PartyLargly elected in the 1931 election. Liberals were desimated because people blamed the party in power for the depression
Ramsay McDonald(PM 1931-1935) "Doctors Mandate" was to wait it out. In 1932 the Import Duties Act devastating because they create artificially paying higher prices. Cannot trade with any country
Edward VIIIUnconventional King- Product of the 1920s. Edward abdicates his King in 1936 due to Parliment not allowing him to marry Wallis Simpson. This preoccupies the public, instead of Hilter invading Rhineland
Munich CrisisChamberlain (British Prime Minister), Eduard Daladier (French) and Hilter meet and decide what to do with Czechoslovakia
The "Phony War"(Sept. 3, 1939) England and France decalre war on Germany due to the invasoin of Poland but do nothing until April 1940. PM Chamberland does not take a stance against Germany
Dunkirk(May-June, 1940) 500,000 troops surrounded and at the mercy of Hitler. Hitler's first mistake- Britain evacuates 350,000 men
The Grand Alliance(June 22, 1941) Hilter invades Russia. Churchill pledged support to Stalin. Churchill and FDR become friends
Atlantic Charter(Aug. 1941) When US gets into the war (even after Pearl Harbor) FDR is determined to fight Hitler and save England
D-Day(June 6, 1944) Paris liberated by August, German on retreat. Battle of the Bulge (Jan. 1945) Germans will be on the defnese the rest of the war
Yalta Conference(Feb. 4, 1945) Creates a structure for the UN, demands help with Japan. Next meeting FDR and Churchill will be gone

Section 5

Question Answer
NationalizationGovernment that is taking care of the health, wealth of its citizens. Nationalization of Bank (1946), coal, and energy. 80% of British economy remained private. Would not become a socialist state
Cold WarTotalitarian regimescreated in Germany, Italy, Japan, and Russia. Created NATO to stop Communism from spreading
Clement AtleeChurchill was voted out. Everyone thought that Churchill was a good wartime PM but it is now peace time.
George OrwellPublished Nineteen Eighty-Four in 1949, and Animal Farm in 1945. Displays the works of communism, and big government
The British Invasion(1960s) The invasion of British rock in the music industry. Brought with it vulgarity, and materialistic views.
Margaret Thatcher(1979-1990) Huge conservative, Promoted less government policies. Reagan policies were similar