(1674-1741) Made contributions in planting crops in rows and cultivation. Wrote about crop rotation in his book, Horse-hoeing Husbandry in 1731
(1765) Created the steam engine. Used in deep shaft mining in coal mines. Steam removed water from mine. Helped Iron industry which machine depended on
Termed Laissez Faire. Wrote the Wealth of Nations, which rejected Mercantilism, and dicusssed supply and demand.
(1815) They were a tariff tax that created raised artificial prices. Popular among land and property owners
(1819) A result of the Corn Laws. Only 11 died, over 400 wounded. Corn Laws were repealed in 1846
Great Reform Bill
(1832) Poltical reform, not social reform. First time that there was a rearrangement of the boroughs. A representation change after the growth in some areas due to the industrial revolution. King William IV supported bill due to his fear of a revolution
(1833 and 1844) Both restrict the hours that children could work. The first prohibited children under 9 from working and student must go to school for at least 2 hours a day. Second restrict hours to 6.5 a day (ages 9-16).
A Labor Organization that demanded reform. The People's Charter was adoptedin 1848 which allowed for Parliment to be paid. The 1 excpetion was annual elections
(1904-05) Test for seek alliance with Japan. IMPACTS are 1.Europe’s superiority is based by technological advance 2. Russia is humiliated 3. Awakened Asian nationalism
(1904) Choice between siding with Germany or France. British mad becuase Germany was attepmting to compete with British Navy
Was a result of Entente between France and England. Germany wanted to break the two up so they created and supplied a revolt in Morocco (French territory). Germany had the hopes of England siding with Morocco because of the histroic hatered between Engalnd and France. Both nations saw what Germany was trying to do.
(1907) Eased tension between the two countries in regards to the Middle East, India, and Far East. Vital that England is doing all these thing because England worries about War with Germany
Anglo- German Naval Arms Race
Alfred von Tirpitz believes that Germany needs a navy. English create the Dreadnought battle ship. A Large navy was necessary for the protection of importing food.
Battle of Jutland
(May 1916) One naval battle in the entire war. Last great confrontation of naval sea battle. North Sea is hazy, cloudy cannot sea all their ships. Relied on Morse code but that does not work because no one is knowing who is talking to who. Both parties retreated. British lost opportunity destroy the Germans after German retreat. Again Commanders fail at changing plan.
Treaty of Versailles
(Nov. 11, 1918) No one completely satisfied. Balance of power restored. Lloyd George argued to help Germany because England would have benefit with trade and industry. Economist included- John Maynard Keynes (Keynesian approach). First time calculate life of a man.
(1920s) Similar to US, culturally but not economically. Divorces were easier to obain, church numbers lowered, birth control clinics opened. 1921-1938 depression hit. 1 of 7 unemployed.
Spirir of Locarno
Locarno Treaty – respecting boundaries of the new created states. Establishes the idea that civilzation has been saved. Outlaw of War with the Kellogg-Briand Pact of 1928
The Great Strike
(1926) Started in coal industry. Considered a failure because the economy is not in a state to help them
National Government Party
Largly elected in the 1931 election. Liberals were desimated because people blamed the party in power for the depression
(PM 1931-1935) "Doctors Mandate" was to wait it out. In 1932 the Import Duties Act devastating because they create artificially paying higher prices. Cannot trade with any country
Unconventional King- Product of the 1920s. Edward abdicates his King in 1936 due to Parliment not allowing him to marry Wallis Simpson. This preoccupies the public, instead of Hilter invading Rhineland
Chamberlain (British Prime Minister), Eduard Daladier (French) and Hilter meet and decide what to do with Czechoslovakia
The "Phony War"
(Sept. 3, 1939) England and France decalre war on Germany due to the invasoin of Poland but do nothing until April 1940. PM Chamberland does not take a stance against Germany
(May-June, 1940) 500,000 troops surrounded and at the mercy of Hitler. Hitler's first mistake- Britain evacuates 350,000 men
The Grand Alliance
(June 22, 1941) Hilter invades Russia. Churchill pledged support to Stalin. Churchill and FDR become friends
(Aug. 1941) When US gets into the war (even after Pearl Harbor) FDR is determined to fight Hitler and save England
(June 6, 1944) Paris liberated by August, German on retreat. Battle of the Bulge (Jan. 1945) Germans will be on the defnese the rest of the war
(Feb. 4, 1945) Creates a structure for the UN, demands help with Japan. Next meeting FDR and Churchill will be gone