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Genetics

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hasanahatesscience's version from 2017-03-27 21:35

Mendelian inheritance

Question Answer
selective breedinghunting dogs vs lap dogs beef cows vs dairy cows
Gregor Mendalbred pea plants for 7 years and followed 7 traits, lucky bc he chose traits located on diff chromosomes, pea plants normally self fertilize
what his his experimenthe removed male parts from blossom and fertilized w pollen from diff plant. collected and planted the seeds. ex: Purple flower x white flower. He planted the f1 seeds and allowed them to self pollinate. 2nd generation had 75% purple 25% white/
mendels conclusiontraits are carried on genes, genes can have multiple forms called Alleles. 2) we inherit 2 copies of each genes. 1 allele from mom 1 allele from dad. .
IF ALLES ARE IDENTICAL THE TRAIT IS HOMOZYGOUS
IF ALLES ARE DIFFERENT THEN THE TRAIT ISHETEROZYGOUS
A Dominant allele is always expressedpurple + purple = purple flower. purple + white = purple flower
A Recessive allele is only expressed in the homozygous form. white + white = white flowers
During meiosisdisjunctions occurs so the ametes are haploid
Meiosis fllowsLAW OF SEGREGATION - alleles are seperated (anaphase 1 and 2) LEW OF INDEPENDANT ASSORTMENT - genes are randomly distributed
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Section 2

Question Answer
Test crossused to determine the genotype of a dominant specimen. D _ _ could be DD or Dd
a test cross is whenyou mate the dominant with homozygous recessive. if 100% of babies are D then dad is DD. if 50% of babies are D, 50% is d then dad is Dd
dihybrid crosslooking at 2 traits at the same time
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Section 3

Question Answer
incomplete dominancewhen the hererozygote has a blended phenotype ex: red and white flowers crossed. cR cR x cW cW will giveu 100% pink flowers
codominancewhen the heterozygote has a spotted or speckled phenotype ex red cow x white cow cRcR x cWcW = 100% spotted red and white cow
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Section 4

Question Answer
multiple allelesinherited traits with 3 or more alleles. ex:human blood type
antibodyproteins that is dissolved in the blood
immunaglobulinsproteins found in the blood that stimulate antibody production (I) Type A allele = IA Type B allele = IB Type O allele = i
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Genes

Question Answer
linked genes - gene locusaddress of the gene. it includes the chromosone its located on, p or q arm, and how far it is from the centromere
non linked genesthose that assort independantly during anaphase because a)located on diff chromosomes, b)on the same chromosome but far apart
discovery of linked genesthomas hunt morgan worked with fruit flies eye colour. crossed with red eyed (xR) and white eyed (xr) and since red was dom, babies would 100% have red eyes. then allowed these babies to mate with brothers and sisters causing 3/4 red eyes and 1/4 white eyes but only on males. repeated the experiment and found white eyed females. THEREFORE EYE COLOUR IS ON THE X CHROMOSOME OF FLIES
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Genetic engineering

Question Answer
genomethe full DNA sequence of an organism.
what did the human genome project find?Our dna consists of 1.5-2% genes and 98% other DNA.
the other 98% of our genome consists of a)regulatory sequences: ON AND OFF (speed up/slow down) or b)repeated sections of nucleotides- function unknown. or c)Viral DNA
humans have about 20500 genes but make over 1000000 diff proteins. only about 7% of the proteins families this refers to evolutionarily linked protesins - are specific to vertebrates
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How is DNA manipulated

Question Answer
Manipulating DNAmoving Dna from 1 to organism #1 or fixing or editing bad genes
step 1:gene is identified and cut out using a specific RESTRICTION ENDONUCLEASE ENZYME
step 2:DNA is sorted using DNA finger printing
step 3:Dna is sequenced for research - obtain nucleotide order (ex: CCGGGTA)
(step 3 cont) Dna is inserted into an organism to make GMO (human insuline gene was stiched into bacteria
(step 3 cont) Gene Therapyput corrected gene into damaged cell (cystic fibrosis)
step 3 cont) Gene Editing fixing a bad gene using a technique called CRISP. R fear-> producing super humans
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Enzymes

Question Answer
enzymeA protein which catalyzes a chemical reaction (speeds up a process to break down)
enzyme structurethere is a groove called ACTIVE SITE, substrate: material the enzymes works on
how do enzymes workenzymes binds its subtrate, enzyme catalyzes the reaction, products are released enzyme is recycled
enzymes can:hook to small molescules together to make 1 larger one (photosynthesis). AND Chop one big molecule into smaller ones (digestion and respiration)
the enzymes ability to bind its substrate depends onshape, charge, water or fat solubility of subtstrate
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Manipulating DNA the details

Question Answer
step 1) Cutting out the geneto cut out specific gene they use a restriction endonuclease (an enzyme) each r.e recognizes and cuts a unique sequence of nucleotides. The R.E cuts the DNA, it is not a clean cut but leaves sticky ends or bonded sections. Sticky ends are useful for sticking this gene into another cells NDA. stiching enzyme is DNA LIGUSE
step 2) How is DNA sortedrestriction endonuclease may produce 100's of chunks of DNA and these need to be sorted. this is called Gel Electrophoresis where Dna samples are placed in wells in a gel and voltage is applied
step 2) part B DNA Finger printingused in criminal cases to exclude suspects and to determine paternity
step 3) DNA sequencingthis process that determines the order of the nucleotides.
steps of DNA Sequencingmake a gazillion copies using DNA POLYCERASE, denature DNA. remove the complimentary cell, run dioxide experiments, run a gel electrophoresis
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Section 10

Question Answer
biotechnologyusing other organisms to make useful products (ex: bacteria to make vaccines, antibiotics, food products, hormones or enzymes for detergents)
genetic engineeringintentionally altering the genome or an organism by inserting DNA from a diff species into the organism
Bacteria only multiplys thru Fission (mitosis in bacteria)
Bacteria has 3 ways to obtain new DNA 1)Conjugation when one cell has plasmid, makes a copy and transports to another cell
Bacteria has 3 ways to obtain new DNA 2)Transformationwhere a bacteria con pick up DNa floating in enviroment
Bacteria has 3 ways to obtain new DNA 3)Transductionwhen a virus injects the DNA into bacteria, and this viral DNA intergrates into Bacterial Genome.
Cloningprocess of making an identical copy of an organism by transfering the nucleaus of your source animal into denuclated egg cell
problems with cloningdna is pretty old, telomeres shortened, off spring are identical so non resistance to disease is a problem
Gene therapyexperimental technique. idea is if u have malfunctioning gene maybe a replacement for the gene can be inserted into all of ur cells. In theory, you would place the fixed Dna into virus. The virus acts as a delivery bringing fixed DNA into human cell
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New Ideas

Question Answer
Bioinformaticsability to handle and analyze biological data using databases
Genomicsstudy of genomes of diff specifes
Model Organismsthose that scientists have studied for a long time and we know a lot about (mouse and fruitfly)
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