Genetics, Lecture 3. Chemistry of the gene

winniesmith1's version from 2017-03-01 15:24

Section 1

Question Answer
No matter the substance genes were made of- this substance must be 1. able to store information. 2. stable so that it can be copied and passed on. 3. able to undergo rare changes or mutations in order for evolution to occur.
Who was Thomas Hunt Morgan Won nobel prize for demonstrating that chromosomes are the fundamental unit of inheritance.
What was the Griffith's experimentUsed mice to show the transfer of hereditary material (transformation). When DNA destroyed in harmful (s) cells, the mouse lived- DNA is the transforming agent (pg 7 powerpoint)
What was Muller's radiation experimentExposed bees too x rays, causing a broken chromosome, this was then passed on causing mutant offspring. conclusion: information can be changed through physical processes
What was the Hershey-chase discoveryUsed radioisotope label protein and DNA of bacteriophage. Found radioactive phosphorus is detected inside of bacteria.
What did Erwin Chargaff discover1. Amount of adenine relative to guanine differs among species. 2.Amount of adenine always equals amount of thymine and amount of guanine always equals amount of cytosine.

Section 2

Question Answer
(Erwin Chargaff) What is special about DNAis a "proto-organism". -Self replicating (with a little help) -Responsive to its environment -Highly organised -Adapts through evolution -Requires a constant input of energy and raw materials (when functioning)
Structure of DNADeoxyribose sugar. With a phosphate group and a base (Adenine, cytosine, guanine, thymine). Carbons are numbered 1' (1 prime) to 5' (5 prime). Phosphate group is the acid of nucleic acid.
What does DNA stand for Deoxyribonucleic acid.
How are nucleotides joined togethercovelently by phosphodiester bonds. Phosphate group bridges 2 nucleotides between the 5' carbon of one sugar and the 3' carbon of the next
What is the watson-crick DNA model Double helix (anti-parallel strands), DNA bases in the middle- held together by H bond formation, Sugar phosphate backbone running along the outside.
how many angstroms is one base pair3.4. (10A = 1nm)
How many angstroms in one complete turn of helix34 (each turn contains a major an minor groove

Section 3

Question Answer
Sources of DNA blood, semen, urine, teeth, sweat, tissue, saliva, hair, faeces, bone, skin cells.
describe overview of DNA manipulation from cell to labDNA can be extracted, cut with enzymes, studied in a lab, cloned in the lab and modified in the lab.
What is Lambda Phage DNAGenomic DNA of a bacterial virus.Attacks bacteria by inserting its nucleic acid into the host bacterial cell. Replicates rapidly inside host cells until the cells burst and release more phages. Harmless to man and other eukaryotic organisms.
What are restriction enzymesan enzyme produced chiefly by certain bacteria, that has the property of cleaving DNA molecules at or near a specific sequence of bases.
How did restriction enzymes evolveby bacteria to protect against viral DNA infection
what do endonucleases do cleave within DNA strands
what do exonucleases dodigest from the ends of DNA molecules

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