Genetics Definitions

robthescienceguy's version from 2016-01-28 03:39

Section 1

Question Answer
Allelevariant form of a gene.
Base PairingA-T or C-G
Chromatina complex of DNA and proteins that form chromosomes in the nucleus.
Chromosomesmade of protein and a single DNA, passed from parents to offspring.
DNAdeoxyribo nucleic acid, carries most genetic instructions used in development, functioning, and reproduction
DNA Packagingbase pairs make up DNA, is in chromosome, is coiled around histones, this is packaged into chromatin.
Genebasic physical and functional unity of heredity.
Histonesbasic positive proteins which associate with negative DNA.
Nitrogenous Basenitrogen containing molecule with same chem properties as a base, AGTC
Nucleosomecomposed of portion of DNA wrapped around histones.
Nucleotidenitrogenous base plus a molecule of sugar and phosphoric acid.
PurineG + A
PyrimidineC + T
Telomerecaps at end of each strand of DNA to protect the chromosomes.
Traitdistinguishing quality belonging to a person.

Section 2

Question Answer
Anaphasefourth phase, separates the duplicated genetic material.
Astercellular structure shaped like a star formed around each centrosome.
Autosomechromosome that does not determine sex.
Centromerelinks sister chromatids, spindle fibers attach here during mitosis
Crossing Overexchange of genes between homologous chromosomes.
Cytokinesisphysical process of cell division.
Cytoskeletonhelps cell maintain structure, helps in movement and division.
Gene Deletionmutation where a part of a chromosome is lost during replication.
Diploidcell that has paired chromosomes, one from each parent.
Duplicationwhen part of a chromosome is copied abnormally resulting in extra genetic material.
Gametemature haploid germ line cell that is able to join with the opposite sex to form a zygote.
Genetic Recombinationcombinations of alleles are shuffled in offspring.
Haploidhalf the usual number of chromosomes, sperm and egg cells.
Homologous Structuresshared structures or genes in different species, wings in bugs and birds.
Independent Assortmentformation of random combinations of chromosomes and genes on pairs of chromosomes.
Inversionturning inward or inside out.
Karyotype number and appearance of chromosomes in nucleus.
Metaphasethird phase, chromosomes attach to spindle fibers in middle.
Microtubulesinvolved in division and motility,are in cytoskeleton.
Nondisjunctionfailure of sister chromatids to separate properly.
Oogenesiscreation of an ovum.
Ploidynumber of sets of chromosomes in a cell.
Polar Fibersspindle fibers that extend from two poles of a dividing cell.
Prometaphasesecond phase, end of prophase beginning of metaphase.
Prophasefirst phase, separates the genetic material in nucleus and condenses chromatin.
Random Fertilizationrandom process ensures different combination each time.
Sex Chromosomedetermines the sex.
Sister Chromatididentical copies of a chromosome joined by a centromere.
Spermatogenesiscreation of sperm.
Synapsispairing of two homologous chromosomes, allows matching of pairs, happens in prophase 1 of meiosis.
Telophasefinal phase, two nucleus form.
Tetradfour part structure, two homologous chromosomes each of two sister chromaitds.
Translocationsabnormality cause by rearrangement of parts between non homologous chromosomes.

Section 3

Question Answer
Autosomal Traitsrecessive traits passed on by heredity.
Codominancerelationship between two versions of a gene.
Cross Fertilizationfusion of male and female gametes from different individuals of the same species.
Dihybrid Crosscross between two different lines that differ in two traits.
F1 Generationfirst generation of offspring of distinctly different parental types.
Genotypeindividuals collection of genes.
Hereditary Traitspassing of phenotypic traits from parent to offspring.
Heterozygoushaving a mix of genes.
Homozygoushaving identical pairs of genes.
Incomplete Dominanceone allele for a trait is not completely expressed over its paired allele.
Linked Genesgenes found near each other on the same chromosome
Monohybridhybrid that is hetero with respect to a specific gene.
Multiple Alleles Traitmore than two alleles.
Phenotypehow genetic and environmental influences create an organisms physical appearance and behavior.
Pollinationtransfer of pollen from anther of a flower to the stigma of the same flower.
Punnett Squareused to determine the probability of an offspring having a certain genotype.F2
F2 Generationgeneration of offspring of F1 generation cross.
Selective Breedinghumans breed animals and plants to develop certain phenotypic traits by choosing which animals and plants get to mate.
Sex Linked Traitsphenotype produced by a recessive gene located on the x chromosome, only expressed in one of the sexes.
Pure Breedorganism that always passes down a certain phenotypic trait.

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