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Genetics chapter 17

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xunicujo's version from 2017-10-29 11:29

Section

Question Answer
The Human Genome Project, which got under way in 1990, is an international effort to
A)determine the sequence of the 3.3 billion base pairs in the human genome.
B)collect samples of cells from all parts of the world in order to preserve human genetic diversity.
C)collect plant seeds in order to reduce the impact of human activity on plant extinction. D)clone deleterious genes from humans and study their mode of action.
E)clone beneficial genes from humans for eventual use in gene therapy.
A
Compared with eukaryotic chromosomes, bacterial chromosomes are
A)large, mainly organized in monocistronic transcription units without introns.
B)small, mainly organized in monocistronic transcription units with introns.
C)large, mainly organized in polycistronic transcription units without introns.
D)small, with high gene density.
E)large, triple-helix, Z-DNA, organized in monocistronic units with introns.
D
Compared with prokaryotic chromosomes, eukaryotic chromosomes are
A)large, mainly organized in single-gene transcription units without introns.
B)small, mainly organized in single-gene transcription units with introns.
C)large, mainly organized in multigene transcription units without introns.
D)small, mainly organized in multigene transcription units without introns.
E)large, linear, less densely packed with protein-coding genes, mainly organized in single-gene units with introns.
E
Most of the bacterial genomes described in the text have fewer than
A)10,000 genes.
B)5000 base pairs.
C)500 genes.
D)10,000 base pairs.
E)50 genes.
A
A bacterial operon
A)contains information for one protein product.
B)contains information for more than one protein product.
C)is capped at the 5 end and carries a poly-A tail at the 3 end.
D)is void of start (AUG) and termination (UAA, UGA, UAG) triplets.
E)none of the above
B
When two proteins show a 50 to 70 percent match in amino acid sequence, it is likely that
A)the two proteins have identical functions.
B)the two proteins have no common origin.
C)the two proteins share a common ancestry.
D)the two proteins have identical tertiary structures.
E)the primary structures may differ but the secondary structures are identical.
C
Mycoplasma are among the smallest and perhaps the simplest self-replicating prokaryotes known. M. genitalium contains a genome of 0.58 Mb. Approximately how many genes does this bacterium contain?
A)about 3000
B)426,000
C)12
D)1200
E)between 400 and 550
E
In general, the organization of genes in bacteria is different from that in eukaryotes. InE. coli, approximately 27 percent of all genes are organized into contiguous, functionally related units containing multiple genes under coordinate control that are transcribed as a single unit. Such contiguous gene families are called
A)transcriptomes.
B)proteomes.
C)contigs.
D)operons.
E)pseudogenes.
D
The human genome contains approximately 20,000 protein-coding genes, yet has the capacity to produce several hundred thousand gene products. What can account for the vast difference in gene number and product number?
A)It is estimated that 40 to 60 percent of human genes produce more than one protein by alternative splicing.
B)There are more introns than exons.
C)There are more exons than introns.
D)Much of the DNA is in the form of trinucleotide repeats, thus allowing multiple start sites for different genes. E)Every gene can be read in both directions, and each gene can have inversions and translocations.
A
What is one major limitation of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DGE)?
A)It is extremely costly to execute in a typical molecular biology laboratory.
B)When products are separated, they tend to leach out of the gel matrix.
C)Only the most abundant products are detected.
D)2DGE can only be run on nucleic acids.
E)2DGE is only useful in separating eukaryotic gene products.
C
What is a concise definition ofproteomics?
A)the process of defining the complete set of proteins encoded by a genome
B)the harvesting of proteins from a cell to determine their economic value
C)the manipulation of amino acid sequences in proteins to alter their function
D)changing the terminal sequences of proteins to alter their function
E)the rational design of drugs based on protein structure
A
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