General Psychology Test 1

fecogano's version from 2016-09-13 02:14

Section 1

Question Answer
biological perspectiveemphasizes bodily changes and changes associated with feeling thoughts or actions
learning perspectiveemphasizes how your environment and experiences affect your actions
cognitive perspectiveemphasizes mental processes relationg to perception, memory, language, and problem solving
Social psychologystudy of how social roles, attitudes, and relationships influence individuals
psychiatrista psychologist that can prescribe medicine
theoryorganized system of assumptions and principles that explains phenomena or interrelationships
descriptive methodsmethods that describe behavior but not explanations for them
case studya detailed description of how an individual is being treated or studied
placebosfake treatments that serve as a control within an experiment
atrribution theorythe theory that people are motivated to explain behavior by atrributing it to a situation or disposition
situational atrributesexplaining someones behavior based on a situation
dispositional attributeexplaining someones behavior based on personality traits
familiarity effectpeople feel more positive toward someone of thing because they are more failiar with it
conformitypeople conform to other people thoughts even when they are wrong because they need information or social acceptance
groupthinkeveryone in a group think the same way to create harmony and suppress disagreement

Section 2

Question Answer
define psychologythe study of mental processes and behavior and how physical and mental state affect it as well as external environment
in what century was psychology founded?19th
what is phrenologythe thought that specific areas of the brain were for different characteristics and could be read from the skull (bumps on skull)
who gets credited for establishing psychology as a science?wilhelm wundt
what is functionalism?focuses on how behavior changes to adapt to the environmnet
who founded psychoanalysis?Sigmund freud
which modern psychological perspective most resembles functionalism?evolutionary
what type of degree must a clinical psychologist have?a doctorate
which descriptive method would be most appropriate for studying people's attitude?survey
what is a correlationhow 2 things relate
whats the difference between negative and positive correlation?neg- 1 increases (x) (y increases) pos- both increase
what are advantages of experimental research?allows researcher to control the situation, permits researcher to identify cause & effect and distinguish placebo effects from treatment effects
fundamental attribution errorforgetting about the situation and describing someones behavior solely based on personality traits
self-serving biastaking credit for our successes by attributing them to traits and failurres to external factors
attitude+/- feelings based on our beliefs that cause us to react in certain ways
cognitive dissonancecontradictory behaviors & beliefs
reason for bystander apathypeople don't take responsibility for things because they think someone else will
reasons people help people1. perceiving someone needs help. 2. entrapment. 3. cultural norm to react. 4. have an ally
ethnocentrismbelief that ones ethnicity is superior to others
how can prejudice be reduced?equal legal and economic status as well as power. authorites support both moral, legal and economic standing. both have opportunities to work and socialize together. work toward a common goal
causes of prejudiceboosts self esteem, wards off feelings of anxiety, and provides scapegoat for problems, influence of friends, fam. etc.justifies economic standing and legitimizes war, bonds cultural groups togehter and creates the beginning of dehumanizing others

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