General osteology - patterns

britt611's version from 2017-01-20 17:27

Section 1

Question Answer
What are the traditional ABCs?Alignment, bone, cartilage, devices, soft tissue
What is the approach to interpretation when looking at soft tissueintracapsular vs extracapsular
What is the approach to interpretation when looking at bonesevaluate periosteal margins for new bone, all cortices and subchondral bone, the medullary cavity
What is the approach to interpretation when looking at joints?evaluate the joint capsular attachments, joint spaces, periarticular margins
how to you assess alighmentbased on appropriate radiographic view, bones are aligned, may require stress views for joints
How do you assess bonesize, shape, position, opacity, margin, number (SSNLMU), periosteum- soft tissue border and all the parts of the bone
how do you assess soft tissue?extra vs intracapulsar swelling, change in opacity (mineralization, emphysem, foreign body)

Section 2

Question Answer
What are signs of intracapsular soft tissue thickening?elargment of soft tissue inside the joint, swelling is usually conformed to the joint margins
What can intracapsular soft tissue thickening be caused by?effusion, synovial tissue proliferation, tumor
What is displaced in intracapsular thickening of soft tissue?fat pad and fascial planes
Describe extracapsular thickening of soft tissuesenlargement of soft tissues outside the joint- swelling may be diffuse or local
What is extracapsular thickening of soft tissue a great indicator for?underlying bone changes
What can cause extracapsular thickening of soft tissuesedema, hemorrhage, inflammation, tumor
in extracapsular thickening of soft tissue swell is ____ to the jointeccentric
what are possible causes of gas in soft tissue?open wound (laceration/compound fracture), gas producing organsims, iatrogenic (post-op or following needle puncture)
What are 3 common causes of mineralization of soft tissuesDystrophic , metastatic and neoplastic mineralization

Section 3

Question Answer
What cells deal with bone productionosteoblast
what cells deal with bone lossosteoclasts
describe bone production periosteal reaction, sclerosis, takes about 10-14 days after insult
Describe bone losslysis, 30-60% bone loss required before able to be seen on radiographs
When do you normally see bone production on radiographs?10-14 days
when do you normally see bone loss on radiographs3-5 days after event
periosteal reaction is classified based on what?sharpness of reaction margins
margins of inactive vs active lesionsinactive = well defined, active = indistinct margins
duration of periosteal reaction is calssifed based on what?opacity of the reaction- reaction become more mineralized over time
the older the lesion the more _____ or _____ it becomesopaque; bone like
What happens to the periosteum as it matures?its intially soft tissue density then turns to bone
describe solid periosteal reactionbone completely fills the area under the reaction, surface can be smooth or undulating
is solid periosteal reaction aggressive?no- its a non aggressive lesion
inactive vs chronic margins in solid periosteal reactioninactive = sharp, chronic = opaque
Describe lamellar periosteal reaction reaction has a layered or onion skin appearance, indicates a cyclic or intermittent process
how aggressive is lamellar periosteal reactions?semi-aggressive
describe spiculated periosteal reactionbone incompletely fills the area under the perioseum, more aggressive type
long vs short spicules in spiculated periosteal reactionlong thin spicules = more aggressive process ; short thick spicules = less agressive
What do spicules that radiate from the central point usually indicate?a focal area where the tumor has broken out of the cortex = called a sun burst appearance
Describe amorphous periosteal reaction bone is formed in a disorganized fashion, process may destro spicules of bone as they are being formed
What is amorphous periosteal reaction with spiculesmay bdestro spicules of bone as they are being formed
is amporphous periosteal reaction aggressive?yes- its usually active and chronic
What is the codemans traianglethis is a solid periosteal reaction seen at the edge of an aggressive reaction
define aggressiveness periosteal reactionthe more disoraganized the new bone formation the more aggressive the lesion

Section 4

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