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# General Chemistry

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Updated
2009-01-18 20:12

## SI Prefixes and Scientific Notation

Question | Answer |
---|---|

What power of 10 is associated with the prefix, tera (T)? | 10^{12} |

What power of 10 is associated with the prefix, giga (G)? | 10^{9} |

What power of 10 is associated with the prefix, mega (M)? | 10^{6} |

What power of 10 is associated with the prefix, kilo (k)? | 10^{3} |

What power of 10 is associated with the prefix, hecto (h)? | 10^{2} |

What power of 10 is associated with the prefix, deka (da)? | 10^{1} |

What power of 10 is associated with no prefix? | 10^{0} |

What power of 10 is associated with the prefix, deci (d)? | 10^{-1} |

What power of 10 is associated with the prefix, centi (c)? | 10^{-2} |

What power of 10 is associated with the prefix, milli (m)? | 10^{-3} |

What power of 10 is associated with the prefix, micro (μ)? | 10^{-6} |

What power of 10 is associated with the prefix, nano (n)? | 10^{-9} |

What power of 10 is associated with the prefix, pico (p)? | 10^{-12} |

What power of 10 is associated with the prefix, femto (f)? | 10^{-15} |

## Common Conversion Factors from SI to English Equivalent Quantities

Question | Answer |
---|---|

What is the conversion factor for miles to km? | 1 mile = 1.609km |

What is the conversion factor for yards to m? | 1 yard = 0.9144m |

What is the conversion factor for feet to m? | 1 foot = 0.3048m |

What is the conversion factor for inches to cm? | 1 inch = 2.54 cm (exactly) |

What is the conversion factor for cu feet to cu m? | 1 cu foot = 0.02832 cu m |

What is the conversion factor for gallons to cu dm? | 1 gallon = 3.785 cu dm |

What is the conversion factor for quarts to cu dm? | 1 quart = 0.9464 cu dm |

What is the conversion factor for quarts to cu cm? | 1 quart = 946.4 cu cm |

What is the conversion factor for fluid oz to cu cm? | 1 fluid oz = 29.57 cu cm |

What is the conversion factor for pounds to kg? | 1 pound = 0.4536 kg |

What is the conversion factor for ounces to g? | 1 ounce = 28.35 g |

## Volume Conversions

Question | Answer |
---|---|

How many cu cm are in 1 mL? | 1 cu cm equals 1 mL |

How many cu dm are in 1 mL? | 10^{-3} cu dm equals 1 mL |

How many L are in 1 mL? | 10^{-3} L equals 1 mL |

How many cu m are in 1 mL? | 10^{-6} cu m equals 1mL |

How many cu dm are in 1 L? | 1 cu dm equals 1 L |

How many cu m are in 1 L? | 10^{-3} cu m equals 1 L |

## Temperature Conversions

Question | Answer |
---|---|

What is the formula to convert Celsius to Fahrenheit? | F = 1.8 C + 32 |

What is the formula to convert Fahrenheit to Celsius? | C = (F - 32) / 1.8 |

What is the formula to convert Celsius to Kelvin? | K = C + 273.15 |

What is the formula to convert Kelvin to Celsius? | C = K - 273.15 |

## Charges of Common Monatomic Ions

Question | Answer |
---|---|

What is the formula for a hydrogen ion? | H^{+} |

What is the formula for a lithium ion? | Li^{+} |

What is the formula for a sodium ion? | Na^{+} |

What is the formula for a potassium ion? | K^{+} |

What is the formula for a cesium ion? | Cs^{+} |

What is the formula for a silver ion? | Ag^{+} |

What is the formula for a magnesium ion? | Mg^{2+} |

What is the formula for a calcium ion? | Ca^{2+} |

What is the formula for a strontium ion? | Sr^{2+} |

What is the formula for a barium ion? | Ba^{2+} |

What is the formula for a zinc ion? | Zn^{2+} |

What is the formula for a cadmium ion? | Cd^{2+} |

What is the formula for a aluminum ion? | Al^{3+} |

What is the formula for a hydride ion? | H^{-} |

What is the formula for a fluoride ion? | Fl^{-} |

What is the formula for a chloride ion? | Cl^{-} |

What is the formula for a bromide ion? | Br^{-} |

What is the formula for an iodide ion? | I^{-} |

What is the formula for an oxide ion? | O^{2-} |

What is the formula for a sulfide ion? | S^{2-} |

What is the formula for a nitride ion? | N^{3-} |

## Common Names of Metals That Form More Than One Monatomic Ion

Question | Answer |
---|---|

What is the common (trivial) name for chromium(II)? | chromous |

What is the common (trivial) name for chromium(III)? | chromic |

What is the common (trivial) name for copper(I)? | cuprous |

What is the common (trivial) name for copper(II)? | cupric |

What is the common (trivial) name for iron(II)? | ferrous |

What is the common (trivial) name for iron(III)? | ferric |

What is the common (trivial) name for mercury(I)? | mercurous |

What is the common (trivial) name for mercury(II)? | mercuric |

What is the common (trivial) name for tin(II)? | stannous |

What is the common (trivial) name for tin(IV)? | stannic |

## Formulas of Common Polyatomic Ions

Question | Answer |
---|---|

What is the formula for an ammonium ion? | NH_{4}^{+} |

What is the formula for a hydronium ion? | H_{3}O^{+} |

What are the two formulas for an acetate ion? | C_{2}H_{3}O_{2}^{-} and CH_{3}COO^{-} |

What is the formula for a cyanide ion? | CN^{-} |

What is the formula for a hydroxide ion? | OH^{-} |

What is the formula for a hypochlorite ion? | ClO^{-} |

What is the formula for a chlorite ion? | ClO_{2}^{-} |

What is the formula for a chlorate ion? | ClO_{3}^{-} |

What is the formula for a perchlorate ion? | ClO_{4}^{-} |

What is the formula for a nitrite ion? | NO_{2}^{-} |

What is the formula for a permanganate ion? | MnO_{4}^{-} |

What is the formula for a carbonate ion? | CO_{3}^{2-} |

What is the formula for a hydrogen carbonate (bicarbonate) ion? | HCO_{3}^{-} |

What is the formula for a chromate ion? | CrO_{4}^{2-} |

What is the formula for a dichromate ion? | Cr_{2}O_{7}^{2-} |

What is the formula for a peroxide ion? | O_{2}^{2-} |

What is the formula for a phosphate ion? | PO_{4}^{3-} |

What is the formula for a hydrogen phosphate ion? | HPO_{4}^{2-} |

What is the formula for a dihydrogen phosphate ion? | H_{2}PO_{4}^{-} |

What is the formula for a sulfite ion? | SO_{3}^{2-} |

What is the formula for a sulfate ion? | SO_{4}^{2-} |

What is the formula for a hydrogen sulfate (bisulfate) ion? | HSO_{4}^{-} |

## Numerical Prefixes for Hydrates and Binary Covalent Compounds

Question | Answer |
---|---|

How many atoms does "mono-" indicate? | 1 |

How many atoms does "di-" indicate? | 2 |

How many atoms does "tri-" indicate? | 3 |

How many atoms does "tetra-" indicate? | 4 |

How many atoms does "penta-" indicate? | 5 |

How many atoms does "hexa-" indicate? | 6 |

How many atoms does "hepta-" indicate? | 7 |

How many atoms does "octa-" indicate? | 8 |

How many atoms does "nona-" indicate? | 9 |

How many atoms does "deca-" indicate? | 10 |

## Common Elements and Their Symbols

Question | Answer |
---|---|

What is the atomic symbol for hydrogen? | H |

What is the atomic symbol for helium? | He |

What is the atomic symbol for lithium? | Li |

What is the atomic symbol for beryllium? | Be |

What is the atomic symbol for boron? | B |

What is the atomic symbol for carbon? | C |

What is the atomic symbol for nitrogen? | N |

What is the atomic symbol for oxygen? | O |

What is the atomic symbol for fluoride? | F |

What is the atomic symbol for neon? | Ne |

What is the atomic symbol for sodium? | Na |

What is the atomic symbol for magnesium? | Mg |

What is the atomic symbol for aluminum? | Al |

What is the atomic symbol for silicon? | Si |

What is the atomic symbol for phosphorus? | P |

What is the atomic symbol for sulfur? | S |

What is the atomic symbol for chlorine? | Cl |

What is the atomic symbol for argon? | Ar |

What is the atomic symbol for potassium? | K |

What is the atomic symbol for calcium? | Ca |

What is the atomic symbol for scandium? | Sc |

What is the atomic symbol for titanium? | Ti |

What is the atomic symbol for vanadium? | V |

What is the atomic symbol for chromium? | Cr |

What is the atomic symbol for manganese? | Mn |

What is the atomic symbol for iron? | Fe |

What is the atomic symbol for cobalt? | Co |

What is the atomic symbol for nickel? | Ni |

What is the atomic symbol for copper? | Cu |

What is the atomic symbol for zinc? | Zn |

What is the atomic symbol for gallium? | Ga |

What is the atomic symbol for germanium? | Ge |

What is the atomic symbol for arsenic? | As |

What is the atomic symbol for selenium? | Se |

What is the atomic symbol for bromine? | Br |

What is the atomic symbol for krypton? | Kr |

What is the atomic symbol for strontium? | Sr |

What is the atomic symbol for silver? | Ag |

What is the atomic symbol for gold? | Au |

What is the atomic symbol for mercury? | Hg |

What is the atomic symbol for cadmium? | Cd |

## The Formulas for the First 10 Straight-Chain Alkanes

Question | Answer |
---|---|

What is the formula for methane? | CH_{4} |

What is the formula for ethane? | C_{2}H_{6} |

What is the formula for propane? | C_{3}H_{8} |

What is the formula for butane? | C_{4}H_{10} |

What is the formula for pentane? | C_{5}H_{12} |

What is the formula for hexane? | C_{6}H_{14} |

What is the formula for heptane? | C_{7}H_{16} |

What is the formula for octane? | C_{8}H_{18} |

What is the formula for nonane? | C_{9}H_{20} |

What is the formula for decane? | C_{10}H_{22} |

## Compounds: Formulas, Names, and Masses

Question | Answer |
---|---|

What is the molecular mass of a formula unit of a compound? | the sum of the atomic masses |

What is Z? | the atomic number |

What is the atomic number of an element? | the number of protons in the nucleus |

What is A? | the mass number |

What is the mass number? | the total number of protons and neutrons |

What is an isotope of an element? | atoms that have different number of neutrons |

What is the modern atomic mass standard? | the carbon-12 atom |

What is the mass of carbon-12? | exactly 12 atomic mass units |

What does one atomic mass unit equal? | 1/12 of the mass of a carbon-12 atom |

How is atomic mass calculated? | the average of the masses of its naturally occurring isotopes weighted according to their abundances |

Describe the four major points of Dalton's Atomic Theory? | (1) All matter is composed of atoms. (2) Atoms of one element cannot be converted into atoms of another element in a chemical reaction. (3)All atoms of an element have the same number of protons and electrons, which determines the chemical behavior of the element. (4)Compounds are formed by the chemical combination of two or more elements in specific ratios. |

Where on the periodic table are the alakli metals? | Group 1(A)1 except hydrogen and includes lithium and sodium |

Where on the periodic table are the alkaline earth metals? | Group 2A(2) includes magnesium and calcium |

Where on the periodic table are the halogens? | Group 7A(17) includes fluorine and chlorine |

Where on the periodic table are the noble gases? | Group 8A(18) includes helium and neon |

What type of compounds are formed by transferring electrons? | ionic compounds |

What type of compounds are formed by sharing electroncs? | covalent compounds |

What is a binary ionic compound? | the simplest type of ionic compound that is composed of two elements, usually one metal and one nonmetal |

What is a cation? | a positively charged ion (an atom that has lost a certain number of electrons) |

What is a anion? | a negatively charged ion (an atom that has gained a certain number of electrons) |

How many electrons are gained or lost by an element near a noble gas forming a monatomic ion? | enough to attain the same number as the noble gas |

What type of bond usually forms between two nonmetals? | covalent bond |

What type of bond usually forms between a metal and nonmetal? | ionic bond |

Which type of substances, ionic or covalent, consist of molecules? | covalent |

What type of bonding exists WITHIN a polyatomic ion? | covalent |

What is shown by an empirical formula? | the relative number of atoms of each element in the compound |

What is shown by a molecular formula? | the actual number of atoms of each element in the compound |

What is shown by a structural formula? | the number of atoms and their bonding; specifically, the relative placement and connections between them |

How do you form the name of the cation of a monatomic ion? | The name of the cation is the same as the name of the metal. |

How do you form the name of the anion of a monatomic ion? | The name of the anion takes the root of the nonmetal name and adds the suffix "-ide". |

With two oxoanions in the family, what is the naming convention used for ions with more O atoms? | take the nonmetal root and the suffix "-ate" |

With two oxoanions in the family, what is the naming convention used for ions with less O atoms? | take the nonmetal root and the suffix "-ite" |

With four oxoanions in the family, what is the naming convention used for ions with the most O atoms? | use the prefix "per-", the nonmetal root, and the suffix "-ate" |

With four oxoanions in the family, what is the naming convention used for one fewer O atoms? | take the root and the suffix "-ate" |

With four oxoanions in the family, what is the naming convention used for two fewer O atoms? | take the root apply the suffix "-ite" |

With four oxoanions in the family, what is the naming convention used for the least (three fewer) O atoms? | use the prefix "hypo-", the root and the suffix "-ite" |

## See Also

Common Monatomic Cations & AnionsCations

Question | Answer |
---|---|

H^{+} | Hydrogen |

Li^{+} | Lithium |

Na^{+} | Sodium |

K^{+} | Potassium |

Cs^{+} | Cesium |

Be^{2+} | Beryllium |

Mg^{2+} | Magnesium |

Ca^{2+} | Calcium |

Ba^{2+} | Barium |

Al^{3+} | Aluminum |

Ag^{+} | Silver |

Anions

Question | Answer |
---|---|

H^{-} | Hydride |

F^{-} | Fluoride |

Cl^{-} | Chloride |

Br^{-} | Bromide |

I^{-} | Iodide |

O^{2-} | Oxide |

S^{2-} | Sulfide |

N^{3-} | Nitride |

P^{3-} | Phosphide |

Common Type II Cations

Question | Answer |
---|---|

Fe^{3+} | Iron(III) |

Fe^{2+} | Iron(II) |

Cu^{2+} | Copper(II) |

Cu^{+} | Copper(I) |

Co^{3+} | Cobalt(III) |

Co^{2+} | Cobalt(II) |

Sn^{4+} | Tin(IV) |

Sn^{2+} | Tin(II) |

Pb^{4+} | Lead(IV) |

Pb^{2+} | Lead(II) |

Hg^{2+} | Mercury(II) |

Hg_{2}^{2+} | Mercury(I) |

Ag^{+} | Silver |

Zn^{2+} | Zinc |

Cd^{2+} | Cadmium |

Common Polyatomic Ions

Question | Answer |
---|---|

Hg_{2}^{2+} | Mercury(I) |

NH_{4}^{+} | Ammonium |

NO_{2}^{-} | Nitrite |

NO_{3}^{-} | Nitrate |

SO_{3}^{2-} | Sulfite |

SO_{4}^{2-} | Sulfate |

HSO_{4}^{-} | Hydrogen Sulfate (bisulfate) |

OH^{-} | Hydroxide |

CN^{-} | Cyanide |

PO_{4}^{3-} | Phosphate |

HPO_{4}^{2-} | Hydrogen phosphate |

H_{2}PO_{4}^{-} | Dihydrogen phosphate |

NCS^{-} | Thiocyanate |

CO_{3}^{2-} | Carbonate |

HCO_{3}^{-} | Hydrogen Carbonate (bicarbonate) |

ClO^{-} | Hypochlorite |

ClO_{2}^{-} | Chlorite |

ClO_{3}^{-} | Chlorate |

ClO_{4}^{-} | Perchlorate |

C_{2}H_{3}O_{2} ^{-} | Acetate |

MnO_{4}^{-} | Permanganate |

Cr_{2}O_{7}^{2-} | Dichromate |

CrO_{4}^{2-} | Chromate |

O_{2}^{2-} | Peroxide |

C_{2}O_{4}^{2-} | Oxalate |

Prefixes Used To Indicate Number In Chemical Names

Question | Answer |
---|---|

mono- | 1 |

di- | 2 |

tri- | 3 |

tetra- | 4 |

penta- | 5 |

hexa- | 6 |

hepta- | 7 |

octa- | 8 |

nona- | 9 |

deca- | 9 |

Names Of Acids That DO NOT Contain Oxygen

Question | Answer |
---|---|

HF | Hydrofluoric acid |

HCl | Hydrochloric acid |

HBr | Hydrobromic acid |

HI | Hydroiodic acid |

HCN | Hydrocyanic acid |

H_{2}S | Hydrosulfuric acid |

Names Of Some Oxygen-Containing Acids

Question | Answer |
---|---|

HNO_{3} | Nitric acid |

HNO_{2} | Nitrous acid |

H_{2}SO_{4} | Sulfuric acid |

H_{2}SO_{3} | Sulfurous acid |

H_{3}PO_{4} | Phosphoric acid |

HC_{2}H_{3}O_{2} | Acetic acid |

Some Prefixes Used In The SI System

Question | Answer |
---|---|

Mega (M) | 1,000,000 (10^{6}) |

Kilo (k) | 1,000 (10^{3}) |

Hecto (h) | 100 (10^{2}) |

Deka (da) | 10 (10^{1}) |

Deci (d) | 0.1 (10^{-1}) |

Centi (c) | 0.01 (10^{-2}) |

Milli (m) | 0.001 (10^{-3}) |

Micro (μ) | 0.000001 (10^{-6}) |

Nano (n) | 0.000000001 (10^{-9}) |