General Anxiety Disorder (GAD)

kms013's version from 2016-01-28 02:52


Question Answer
What is GAD?Anxiety defined as generalized excessive emotional state of fear usually associated with heightened state of physiologic arousal. Characterized by excessive worry about everyday things.
How many adults in the US have GAD?18.1%
Number of adults who will experience GAD once in their lifetime?28.8%
Excessive anxiety occurring more days than not for at least how many months?6 months
Anxiety with ___of ___symptoms.3, 6
Twins and family study about heritability 15-40%
A gene associated with _________ transport was found to be higher in patients with GAD.Serotonin
GAD may have a close genetic relationship to ___.Depression
Several major areas of environmental stressors could cause GAD, such as___.Stress, upbringing, trauma, change, abuse
What are the 2 theories regarding serotonin and GAD?1. There is excess of serotonin and serotonin causes anxiety. 2. There is a deficit of serotonin, and serotonin inhibits anxiety.
GAD changes what in the brain?Structural volume of white matter in the amygdala
Areas of activationPrefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate
Response to medication to GAD are expected within___.8 weeks
SSRI effectIncreases levels of serotonin by inhibiting reuptake at presynaptic neuron
SSRI side effectsOverall a more favorable side effect profile compared to tricyclic antidepressants, including restlessness, insomnia, nausea, and headache
Tricyclic antidepressants effectMany increase levels of serotonin and neurepinephrine by inhibiting reuptake at presynaptic neuron.
Tricyclic antidepressant side effectsCan be severe
TA cautionIntroduce gradually
What else does TA treat?Depression
SNRI effectIncreases levels of serotonin and NE by inhibiting reuptake at presynaptic neurons
Benzodiazepines effectReduces activity of nerves in the brain and spinal cord by enhancing the effects of GABA; promotes relaxation, reduces muscular tension
Benzo side effectsMemory changes, sedation, agitation, withdrawal
Benzo caution?Long term (2 months) use may cause physical dependence
What is one of the most effective forms of psychotherapy for GAD?Cognitive behavioral therapy
Cognitive behavioral therapyPatient involved in his own recovery, sense of control

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