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Gene Expression

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th4ngz's version from 2017-12-05 20:54

Section 1

Question Answer
TranscriptionMake mRNA from designated DNA region
InitiationRNA polymerase bind to promoter and make mRNA
ElongationRNA polymerase add 5' to 3', complementary
Termination DNA termination sequence or termination enzyme
IntronsNoncoding segment
ExonsCoding segment
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Section 2

Question Answer
TranslationTake place in ribosomes, regulate by mRNA
InitiationAUG codon start in mRNA
ElongationMatching mRNA codon to tRNA anticodon
tRNAContain anticodon and amino acid
Peptide bondJoin amino acid, make protein
TermonationReach stop codon
Codon/AnticodonTriplet nucleotide complementary
ChaperoninCap that fold protein
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Section 3

Question Answer
MutationChange in DNA sequence
Base-pair substitutionReplace nucleotide
Point mutation1 pair change (sickle-cell disease)
Silent mutationNo observable effect
Missense mutationChange amino acid
Nonsense mutationChange stop codon
Base-pair insertion/deletionAdd or lose nucleotide pair -> very bad
Cause of errorDNA replication, repair, recombination, mutagens
EvolutionMutation in gametes
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