Gen Ortho- Contusions

taylormaloney's version from 2016-10-04 03:35

Section 1

Question Answer
Define ContusionA region of injured tissue in which blood capillaries have been ruptured.
Define EcchymosisA discoloration of the skin resulting from bleeding beneath the surface. A bruise.
The bruising of a contusion may track...Inferiorly, along fascial planes to appear at a distance from original site of injury.
Generally the skin overlying a contusion is..Intact, the skin is not generally broken at the site. Injury is below the surface.
Define HematomaA collection of blood in body tissues, (pathological).
The pooling blood of a hematoma is painful because..It compresses nerve endings.
What type of swelling takes place at a quicker pace, edema or hematoma?Hematoma, due to arterial pressure.
A hematoma may be contained within a ..Fascial Compartment.
The pain from a hematoma is likely to increase when..There is movement or pressure placed upon site of injury.
What takes place when a hematoma becomes 'organized'.Fibroblasts lay down fibrin, which then arrange themselves into collagen fibres.
What type of medical treatment is viable for a hematoma?Aspiration of the blood from the site of injury.

Section 2

Question Answer
Define HemorrhageAcute or Ongoing bleeding.
Define BruiseDiscoloration of blood seen through the skin, usually but not always a contusion.
Define Myositis OssificansA complication following a hematoma where the blood within the muscle calcifies.
Myositis Ossificans Cause?Generally considered idiopathic.
What is the functional explanation for MO's?Fibroblasts are replaced with Osteoblasts, new bone is laid down within approx 6 weeks.
How is MO diagnosed?Xray after 10 days-3 weeks.
Does the bone deposits of MO's get reabsorbed?Some, but not all.
Does MO occur in any specific place?Not entirely. Possibly within a muscle, or have an attachment to existing bone.
What are some signs/symptoms of MO?Spasms + Local inflammation in muscle tissue. Possible decrease in strength.
Are there any risk factors specific to MO?Yes, the more frequent the contusion the more likely a MO may form in that area.
Is there a medical treatment?If the MO is within a muscle, it may be surgically removed.

Section 3

Question Answer
What is the overall cause of a contusion?A direct blow to the muscle, as in contact sports, MVA's, or falls/fractures.
How are contusions classified?By severity- Mild, Moderate, Severe.
What are the characteristics of a mild contusion?Minor crush, minimal bleeding, minimal/no loss of strength/ROM, can continue activity.
What are the characteristics of a moderate contusion?Moderate crush with moderate bleeding and swelling. Difficulty continuing activity.
What are the characteristics of a severe contusion?Severe crush with rapid bleeding/swelling. Cannot continue activity.
What time-frame is most critical for the treatment of a contusion?The first 24 hours.
What is the primary goal for the treatment of a contusion?Control bleeding. Avoid stretching,exercise,heat,alcohol consumption,and vigorous massage,
How long may it take for the full extent of injury to be apparent?24 hours.
What are the most common areas for contusions?Quads, dorsum of foot, anterior tibia, sacrum, iliac crest, greater trochanter, acromion, olecranon, dorsum of hand, glutes,delt,biceps and triceps.

Section 4

Question Answer
What are the symptoms for a mild acute contusion?Minor crush, minimal local edema, local tenderness, minor discomfort, 5-20% loss of ROM, no loss of strength.
What are the symptoms for a moderate acute contusion?Crushing of several fibres of muscle, moderate local swelling due to hematoma, moderate tenderness, 20-50% loss of ROM, mod loss of strength, pain with contraction/stretching.
What are the symptoms for a severe acute contusion?Crushing of many fibres, marked rapid swelling, severe pain, bruising is red black blue, risk of re-bleeding for 10 days, severe decrease in ROM and strength, often wrapped to prevent further swelling.