Gen Ortho- Burns + Wounds

taylormaloney's version from 2016-10-04 04:53

Section 1

Question Answer
Define InjuryA disruption in the continuity of any tissue.
What are the three layers of the skin?Epidermis, Dermis, and Sub-dermal/Subcutaneous.
Define EpidermisOuter layer, lifespan of 28-30 days, continuous elimination and renewal.
Define DermisMid layer, anchors and supplies nutrients to the epidermis. Composed of collagen and elastin. Contains sebaceous and sweat glands, hair follicles, nerve receptors, blood and lymphatic vessels.
Define Sub-Dermal/SubcutaneousInner layer, contains adipose tissue, large blood vessels, and deep hair follicles. Sits above muscle and bone.

Section 2

Question Answer
Define WoundA disruption of the continuity of skin.
What are the two main causes of wounds?Thermal + Mechanical Forces.
What are the main types of wounds?Abrasions, Lacerations, Incisions, Punctures, and Animal Bites.
Define AbrasionSuperficial with ragged edges, very painful. Usually result of scrape of tearing of skin. Pain reduced if kept moist.
Define LacerationsAn increased tissue loss with ragged edges, often sutured to bring edges together.
Define IncisionsClean, approximated edges resulting from sharp object. Sutures or tape used to speed healing.
Define PuncturesClean edges with small entry, can penetrate deeply like a bullet wound or stepping on a nail. May close over before deep healing occurs, risk for infection.
Define Animal BiteCombination of crush, laceration and puncture.

Section 3

Question Answer
Define First Intention HealingEdges are clean and held together with ligatures, little gap to bridge healing. Healing is generally quick, rapid restoration of gap. Soundly united within 2 weeks.
Define Second Intention HealingEdges are separated, gap cannot be directly bridged, extensive epithelial loss, severe contamination. Healing is generally slow, Granulation tissue formed, risk of scarring and wound contracture.

Section 4

Question Answer
Define BurnA specific type of wound caused by a thermal agent.
Range of Severity?Mild redness to full thickness tissue destruction of dermis + deeper tissues.
What factors are considered when assessing severity?Depth, Amount of tissue affected, Area of burn, Cause of burn, Age of person, pre-existing conditions.
Define Superficial Burns1st Degree, affecting epidermis only. Redness and pain, mild localized edema. Healing is rapid w/ no scar tissue. Possible discoloration of skin.
Define Partial-thickness burns2nd Degree, affecting epidermis/dermis. Presence of Blistering! Can be superficial/deep. The deeper the burn the higher the risk of infection/edema and reduced pain. Superficial- 14-21 day heal time. Deep- 21-35 day heal time. Risk of fibrosis, contacture and loss of ROM.
Define Full-thickness burns3rd + 4th Degree. Affecting all layers of tissue layers and possibly deeper underlying tissues. Substantial damage to all structures, may appear dry and inelastic/white and wavy/charred. Painless due to nerve damage. Re-epithelialization possible, skin grafts required.
Define the rule of 9's.Percentage of the body surface damaged by the burn calculated by predetermined 'map', Approximates only.

Section 5

Question Answer
What are the main causes of burns?Thermal, Chemical, Electrical, and Radiation.
Thermal Burn Facts-Heat, Hot Liquids, Extreme Colds- common cause of deep partial thickness burns.
Chemical Burn Facts-Acids/Alkalines. Must be deactivated by removal of contaminated articles and cleansing of skin. Skin contact/Inhalation. Appear to heal more slowly than all other types.
Electrical Burn Facts-Superficial Damage may be misleading, internally along path of travel is substantial damage to muscle,bone and nerves. Cardiac Arrythmias, Greatest number of amputations. Possible CNS damage.
Radiation Burn Facts-Sun/Medical Treatment.
What is the most common cause of death relating to burns?Sepsis- lack of skin's protection makes infection more likely. Depressed immune function.

Section 6

Question Answer
Thoracic burns may affect ?Breathing.
Gastric and Duodenal Ulcerations are found in up to ___% of burn victims.66%
Insufficient Fluid Replacement can cause..Renal Complications.
Heterotopic Calcifications at joints occur..During the last phase of healing.
Burned skin may be very sensitive to UV rays because..It nolonger contains the melanin that would typically act as a protectant.