Gen Ortho- Atrophy + Hypertrophy

taylormaloney's version from 2016-10-03 03:34

Section 1

Question Answer
Define HypotonusAbnormally decreased muscle tone.
Define Muscle AtrophyA decrease in size of muscle cells/Size of muscle.
Atrophy causes a severe degree of ______ + _________.Hypotonicity and Muscle Wasting.
What are the two types of muscle atrophy?Disuse- secondary to primary lesion causing immobility/ lack of use. True Atrophy- Loss of function due to de-enervation of muscle through pathology or trauma.
Muscle wasting usually becomes obvious after how long? At it's maximum by ?Obvious by 4-6 weeks, maximum by 12 weeks.
Circulatory changes due to neural injury take approximately how long to become significant?3 weeks.

Section 2

Question Answer
Is there any changes of innervation relating to Hypotonus?No
Is there a change in cell number/size ?Cell # unchanged, cell size is decreased.
In hypotonus, does the muscular tone change?Yes, tone is decreased.
Is Fibrosis or Contracture present?Unlikely, but possible.
AROM/PROM/RROM?AROM- normal. PROM- normal, possible reduction. RROM- reduction/weak.

Section 3

Question Answer
Is there any changes of innervation relating to Disuse Atrophy?No
Is there a change in cell number/size?No- possible after long term.
In Disuse Atrophy, does the muscular tone change?Yes, tone is decreased.
Contractures present?Unlikely, but possible.
AROM/PROM/RROM?AROM-possible reduction, PROM- Normal/possible reduction. RROM- Usually reduced but not absent.

Section 4

Question Answer
Is there any changes of innervation relating to True Atrophy?Yes, disrupted.
Is there a change in cell number/size?Yes, reduced.
In True Atrophy, does the muscular tone change?Yes, decreased.
Fibrosis/Contracture Present?Possibly present.
AROM/PROM/RROM?AROM- absent. PROM- normal/possible reduction. RROM- Absent.

Section 5

Question Answer
Define HypertonicityAbnormalities of posture, position, and movement that can lead to abnormal lengthening/shortening of structures.
Define TonusNormal or non-pathological tone.
Define HypertonusAbnormally increased or excessive muscle tone.
Define HypertrophyEnlargement of existing muscle fibres.
Define HyperplasiaIncrease in number of muscle fibres.
Define SpasmAn involuntary, sustained contraction of a muscle.
Define CrampCommon term for painful, prolonged muscle spasm.
Define Extrinsic SpasmProtective mechanism to immobilize part of the body having sustained an injury.
Define SpasticityState of sustained involuntary hypertonicity, secondary to CNS pathology.

Section 6

Question Answer
Define Primary LesionReaction to direct trauma, cold, or immobilization. Response to weakness in opposing muscle.
Define Secondary LesionReaction to trauma in other tissues, structures. Providing muscle guarding, compensation for movements, ADLs.
Define Intrinsic Muscle SpasmPain resulting from direct or indirect trauma/inflammation/infection that can initiate a reflex muscle contraction. Part of Pain-Muscle cycle.
Intrinsic Muscle Spasms may restrict what movements?Movement of joint crossed by the muscle.
The lack of movement allows for what?Tissue ischemia and metabolite retention which then irritate nerve endings.
The muscles responds to this pain by doing what?Remaining in spasm, even after initial irritation is nolonger acute.
Define Reflex Muscle GuardingExtrinsic Spasm, in response to pain due to local tissue injury.
This muscle spasm acts to do what?Acts to functionally splint the injury, reducing movement and preventing further injury.
This muscle guarding may also be due to ?Referred pain.
This muscle guarding stops when?Pain is relieved.

Section 7

Question Answer
Define Muscle ToneResistance of a relaxed muscle to passive stretch or elongation. Also noticed with palpation of direct compression.
Define Muscle TensionMuscle fibres that tend to shorten/ A muscle that is held in sustained contraction.
Define Hypertonicity- NeurologistsThe abnormally high tone usually seen with upper motor neuron disorders. Such as - spasticity, rigidity, and spasms.
Define Hypertonicity- PhysioT's/OsteopathsAn increase in tone that is present with painful, dysfunctional muscles.

Section 8

Question Answer
Muscle Spindles-Major sensory organs of muscles/aids in control of muscle movements.
Gamma Fibres-Control length of the small specialized muscle fibres/intrafusil fibres within spindle. -More stress= more muscle tension/spasm.
GTOs- Nerve receptors located in the tendons near their muscular attachments. Sensitive to muscle tension (active + passive). Firing inhibits contraction of the muscle attached + prevents overstretching.
What are the causes of Muscle Spasms-Pain, Circulatory Stasis, Increased Gamma Neuron firing, Chilling of muscle, Impaired nutritional supply, lack of Vit D.
What are some causes of Calf Cramps?Intermittent Claudication, DVT, Lumbar Degenerative Disc Disease.
CIs/Precautions-Do not eliminate reflex muscle guarding of acute injury, avoid passive stretch to acute muscle spasm, not hot hydro for acute muscle spasm, no local massage for DVT.