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Gen Chem reviewer

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baejuhyeoned's version from 2017-03-08 18:45

Section 1

Question Answer
Carbohydratesessential components of all living organisms.
Carbohydratesmost abundant class of biological molecule
Chitinmakes up lobster shells and the fluid that lubricates the joints of our body
CarbohydratesConsist of carbon, hydrogen & oxygen
(1) Monosaccharides, (2) Disaccharides, (3) PolysaccharidesClasses of carbohydrates
Monosaccharidessimplest type of carbohydrates
Monosaccharides"simple sugars"
(1) Glucose, (2) Fructose, (3) Galactose3 types of Monosaccharides
GlucoseKnown as blood sugar, grape sugar, dextrose
GlucoseOnly aldose found in nature
FructoseAlso called levulose or fruit sugar
FructoseA ketohexose found in many fruit juices
FructoseSweetest sugar known
GalactoseCan be formed from hydrolysis of larger carbohydrates
GalactosePart of lactose
Lactosesugar found in milk
GalactoseFound in glycolipids, fat-like substances that are components of the brains
Pentosesfive carbon sugars
Ribose & Deoxyribosepentoses that play a role in human chemistry
Ribose & DeoxyriboseSugar found in nuclei acids
DisaccharidesFormed from the condensation reaction of 2 monosaccharides
Glycosidic bondBond between the monosaccharide
(1) Maltose, (2) Lactose, (3) Sucrose3 types of disaccharides
Maltose (malt sugar)Made up of 2 glucose units
Maltose (malt sugar)Produced by incomplete hydrolysis of starch
Lactose (milk sugar)Found only in milf of mammals
Lactose (milk sugar)Composed of glucose & galactose
Sucrose"table sugar, cane sugar, beet sugar"
SucroseFound in the juices of fruits & veggies
Polysaccharideare complex carbohydrate polymers containing 3 or more monosaccharides joined together by glycosidic bonds
Starchrefers to a group of polysaccharides found in plants
Starchserve as major storage form of carbs in plant seeds and tubers
GlycogenStorage form of carbs in animals & humans
Celluloseglucan which is found in the cell wall of plants
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Section 2

Question Answer
Proteinsmost complex and varied class of molecules found in living organisms
Proteins"Of prime importance"
Amino acidsMonomer units produced by protein
Essential Amino Acidsthe body can synthesize 10 of 20 A as found in proteins.
Simple & ConjugatedMAJOR CLASSES of proteins
Globular & Fibrous Classes of protein based on physical
Enzymescatalyze biological reactions
Structural Proteinsprovide structural support
Storage Proteinsstore nutrients
Transport Proteinsbind & transport specific molecules in the blood.
Membrane Proteinsdynamic membrane function
Hormonesregulate body metabolism
Contractile Proteinperform contraction & movement
Toxinsdefend organisms
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Section 3

Question Answer
LipidsInsoluble to water
LipidsCan be non polar organic solvents such as ether and benzene
(1) composed of long H-chains, (2) formed in esterification reactionChemical composition of LIPIDS
(1) Fats, (2) Phospholipids, (3) Steroids, (4) WaxesClasses of LIPIDS
Fatstriglycerides that are solid
Oilunsaturated fatty acids
Phospholipidsmajor structural components of cell membranes
Steroidscomposed of several fused ring of atoms
(1) Cholesterol, (2) Adrenocorticoid hormones, (3) Sex hormones, (4) Bile acidsSteroids include 4 groups
CholesterolEssential lipid for humans
Adrenocorticoid hormonesregulation of water & electrolyte balance
Bile acidscholesterol in liver and stored in gall bladder
Waxesare esters
WaxesServes as waterproofing material
SAPONIFICATIONa process by which triglycerides are reacted with sodium or potassium hydroxide to produce glycerol and a fatty acid salt, called soap.
HYDROGENATIONchemical reaction between molecular hydrogen and element or compound.
ESTERIFICATIONis the process of forming esters from carboxylic acids.
Solutionshomogenous mixture of 2 more substance in a single physical state.
(1) Particles are small, (2) Evenly distributed, (3) Will not separateProperties of solution
Alloysmost common solid solutions containing 2 or more metals
Aqueous solutionSolutions with water as the solvent
ElectrolyteSubstance that dissolves in water to for solution
Soluteis the one being dissolved
Solventthe one dissolving
Solublecapability of being dissolved
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Section 4

Question Answer
Friedrich Miescher (1864)Isolated what he called nuclein from the nuclei of cells
DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid) & RNA (Ribonucleic Acid)2 types of nucleic acid
Nucleic acdNuclein was shown to have acidic properties hence it was called
DNAFound in nucleus
RNAfound throughout the cell
Phosphate, Sugar, BaseNucleotide structure
Sugar (phosphate backbone)Nucleotides are all orientated in same direction
2 strands of polynucleotidesDNA is made of
Purine & Pyrimidinebases joined by hydrogen bonds
Wilkins & Franklin (1952)X-ray calligraphy
Watson & Crick (1953)The double helix
DNAstores genetic information
RNAsynthesize protein: uracil strand
Protein structuresout of 300 amino acids, only 20 of them is for protein
Primary StructureIt is inear
Primary StructureN- terminal (start, left) ; C- terminal (end, right)
Secondary StructureLocal folded structure
Secondary StructureLinus Pauling: xray diffraction data
Tertiary Structure3D structure of polypeptide
Tertiary StructureInteractions between the R groups
Hydrogen BondingMajor factor
Hydrogen BondingInternal h- bonds that fold the protein into its native state
Disulfide bridgesBetween molecules of the amino acid cycteine from the sulfhydryl group (- SH)
Hydro phobic interactionBetween non polar side of amino acids
Salt bridgesIonic interactions between charged carboxyl or amino side chains
Ionic interactionsNegatively changed groups
Van der Waals ForcesInteractive & repulsive
Van der Waals ForcesControl protein folding
Quarternary Structure2/ more different polypeptide chains
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