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GEN CHEM EXAM PUCHA

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baejuhyeoned's version from 2016-12-12 20:28

Section 1

Question Answer
Organic ChemistryStudy of organic compounds
Organic compoundscontain carbon, hydrogen, and sometimes other elements
OrganicThis term relates to the importance of carbon compounds in living systems
CarbonHas the ability to bond to other carbon atoms to form long chains or rings of carbon atoms with hydrogen atoms (or other atoms) attached
Structural Formulashows the bonds as lines and labels the atoms
Functional GroupA reactive part of a molecule that undergoes characteristic reactions
Functional GroupIt is often an attachment to the carbon-hydrogen chain
HydrocarbonA carbon compound that contains only carbon and hydrogen
IsomersTwo compounds that have the same composition and formula, but with different arrangements of atoms in their molecular structures
Hydrocarbon Moleculeforms an open chain
Bonding electronsare localized or confined to 2 adjacent atoms
Aliphatic HydrocrabonsA hydrocarbon with localized bonds
Saturated & Unsaturated2 kinds of aliphatic hydrocarbons
Saturated HydrocrabonsContains only single bonds between carbon atoms
Saturated HydrocrabonsAlso called alkanes
Unsaturated HydrocrabonsContains one or more double or triple bonds between carbon atoms
AlkenesHydrocarbons with double bonds
AlkynesHydrocarbons with triple bonds
Acyclic & Cyclic2 types hydrocarbon
AcyclicOpen Chain
CyclicClosed Chain
Saturated & Unsaturated2 types open chain (Acyclic)
Saturated: Cycloalkanes, Unsaturated: Cycloalkenes &&& Unsaturated: Aromatic2 types closed chain (Cyclic)
Cyclic HydrocarbonsForm a closed chain/ring of carbon atoms
Aromatic CompoundA cyclic molecule containing a ring of carbon atoms attached to each other in alternating single and double bonds
Aromatic CompoundElectrons represented by the double bonds are delocalized (Spreads out over the entire ring structure)
PetroleumPrimary source of hydrocarbons
Energy productionMajor use of Petroleum
Natural gas& Crude Oiltwo forms of petroleum
Natural gasUsually found in one of two forms
Crude OilMust be refined before it can be used
Fractional Distillation & Catalytic cracking2 Basic steps of Refining Crude Oil
Fractional Distillation Separation of petroleum into fractions having different ranges of boiling points
Fractional Distillation Difference in boiling points due to intermolecular forces between hydrocarbon molecules
Catalytic crackingUses heat and catalyst to break down the higher boiling 'gas oil' fraction
Catalytic crackingUsed to make gasoline
Alkanes, Alkenes, Alkynes3 classes of Acyclic Hydrocarbon
Acyclic HydrocarbonMay be straight or branched
increase, increaseMeltin points and boiling points _______ as the number of carbon atoms __________
Straight-chain alkanes, Branched alkanes____________ have higher boiling points than __________
Straight-chain alkanesHave more surface contact between molecules than branched-chain alkanes resulting in higher boiling points
NODo straight chain alkanes have branches?
Alkyl Groupsis a group derived from an alkane by removal of 1 hydrogen
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Section 2

Question Answer
CH3OHAlcohol
(CH3)2COKetone
CH3CH2CO2HCarboxylic Acid
CH3CH2CHOAldehyde
CH3CH2NH2Amine
CH3CO2CH2CHEster
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Section 3

Question Answer
(1) The metallic bond is the electrical attraction, (2) Between the valence electron and the positive nuclei, (3) The free elctron account for the characteristic properties of metalsImpact of Bonding arrangement
Electron-sea modelthis model of positive ions held together by delocalized electrons
Electron-sea modelThe elctrons are said to be delocalized because they are not held in one locality as part of a specific or covalent bond
Metalis an orderly crystalline packing of positive ions, each one of having given up electrons from its outermost incomplete electron shell
Electron-sea modelThese electrons are mobile, and are free to wander from one end of the metal to the other
Metallic bondBonding system unique to metals
(1) High electrical conductivity, (2) Luster, (3) Malleability, (4) Ductility, (5) Ability to conduct heatMetals are characterized by:
ResonanceLike a single Lewis structure, each alone shows some aspect of the shell
ResonanceLike a set of resonance structures, the pair of photos together gives a better representation of the shell
Octet RuleTendency of atom to achieve an electron configuration having 8 valence electrons
Covalent BondEach shared electron interacts simultaneously with two nuclei
(1) Arranged in regular geometric pattern, (2) Hard& Brittle, (3) Can shatter if struck forcefullyStructure of Ionic Crystals
Crystal LatticeThis pattern obtained when an ion, represented as a charged sphere, exerts a forces equally in all directions
Cation & AnionsMust come into contact for a crystal lattice to form
Crystal LatticeIons of like charge repel each other in ionic compounds, and opposite charged ions attract. This results in a 3-dimensional regular pattern
Lewis Dot SymbolElectron Dot Symbol
Lewis Dot SymbolDots placed around an element symbol represent valence electrons
Electronegativity TrendsThe electronegativity between metals and nonmetals is so large that the electrons are transferred, not shared
greater, moreThe _______ the elctronegativity difference, the ______ polar the bond
Electronegativity Scaletells us which elements have a greater pull on electrons in covalent bond
Electronegativity Ability of an atom to attract bonding electrons
Electronegativity Proposed by Linus Pauling in early 1930s
(1) Polar covalent bond, (2) Increased Ionic CharacterA difference in electronegativity between atoms in a covalent bond results in
electrons are not shared equallyIn polar covalent bonds,
Partial Electron TransferWhen electrons are not shared equally
Polar Covalent BondsShorter Bonds
Polar Covalent BondsStronger Bonds due to their increased ionic character
Nonpolar Covalent BondsTypically longer bonds
Nonpolar Covalent BondsWeaker Bonds
PolarityOccurs in polar covalent molecules
Polaritydegree of transfer of electrons in a covalently bonded molecule composed of different element's atoms
Covalent BondBond created by sharing electrons
Covalent BondOccurs between two nonmetals (resulting in a neutrall overall charge)
Covalent BondElectrons are not transferred in this case
Ionic Bondsa bond created by electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions
Ionic BondsOccurs between a metal and nonmetal
Electrostatic forces between oppositely charged ionsIn ionic compounds, ions are held together by
Covalent bonds which electrons are sharedIn molecular compounds, atoms are held together by
Chemical BondA force that holds atoms together in a molecule or compound
(1) Ionic Bonds, (2) Covalent BondsTwo types of chemical bonds
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Section 4

Question Answer
Metallic BondingOccurs between like atoms of a metal in the free state
Polar molecules aka DipolesNot equal on all sides
(1) Low m.p. temp and b.p temps, (2) Relatively soft solids as compared to ionic compoundsProperties of Molecular Substances
(1) Hard solid @ 22 degree celcius, (2) High mp temp, (3) Nonconductors of electricity in solid phase, (4) Good conductors in liquid phase or dissolved in waterProperties of Ionic Compounds
(1) Bonding pairs, (2) Lone pairsTypes of e- pairs
Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory (VSEPR Theory)Electron pairs orient themselves in order to minimize repulsive forces
(1) Linear (Straight line), (2) Bent, (3) Trigonal Pyramid, (4) Tetrahedral4 Shapes of molecules
van der Waals periodicityIncrease with molecular mass
van der Waals periodicityIncrease with closer distance between molecules
Intermolecular attractionsAttractions between molecules
Hydrogen bondingStrong attraction between special polar molecules
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