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GE Exam One Issue Areas

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achapss's version from 2017-02-23 17:53

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Question Answer
Rubella aka german measles, pathogenic infection leading to congenital heart defect, deafness and cataracts
Syphillis and Herpes Simplex 2pathogenic infection causing microcephaly and mental retardation
Cytomegalovirus kidney and liver disorder, brain damage, pneumonia
Toxoplasmosis pathogenic infection via parasite found in cat feces that causes fatal lesions in the CNS
Dioxinsfound in agent orange herbicide, lead to miscarriage and structural deformity
What are the steps of a health risk assessment?hazard identification, dose response assessment, exposure assessment, risk characterization
What happens in hazard identification?first step in health risk assessment, based on testing for harm in animals
What happens in dose response assessment?second step in health risk assessment, based on toxicity testing
What happens in exposure assessment?part three of risk assessment, number and type of people, magnitude, geographic extent
What happens in risk characterization?brings all of the information together, determines likely and adverse effects on a population
PCBsused in industrial settings for sealants, cooling liquid etc, escaping into ecosystems, prevalent in breast milk samples, toxicity at low concentrations, dermal exposure causes least risk and oral and respiratory much more, common chloracne
Dioxinschemical from herbicide agent orange spread via precipitation and accumulates in fatty tissues, leads to chloracne and thyroid/fertility issues as well as cancer, carcinogen at high levels and low levels display no effect
Asbestosold construction materials responsible for most death and disability common cancer and in men, toxic via oral and respiratory exposure through inhalation of fibers caught in the lungs
What are the three outcomes of asbestos exposure?Asbestosis, lung cancer, mesothelioma
Asbestosischronic disease scarring lung tissue, irreversible, painful, degenerative, can be deadly
Mesotheliomafatal cancer of the lungs and stomach lining ONLY caused by asbestos
What are the risk factors for asbestos?level and duration of exposure, time since exposure occurred - symptoms are not immediate, synergistic effect of smoking, short fibers cause less damage than long
Mercurycomes from coal combustion, ores, waste incineration and ends up in water sources, humans are most commonly exposed via fish
What are the outcomes of mercury exposure?enters the blood stream and attaches to RBCs then diffuses to the brain and causes issues with speech, walking, vision, and death at both acute and chronic exposure
Leadsingle most concerning exposure for children in the US, finally declining but still bad
What is the outcome of lead exposure?issue with blood cell formation leading to anemia, damage to the CNS leading to hyper irritability, poor memory and mental
What are the modes of exposure for lead?Oral - ingested as a large hazard for children due to underdeveloped blood brain barrier, nutrient deficiency increases and nutritious foods can prevent adverse effects, Respiratory - lead dust and fumes into bloodstream and more permanently into bones of which it can be rereleased
Salmonellafound in poultry, meat, eggs, milk, nuts and raw produce causes mild to moderate diarrhea and vomiting
Campylobacterfound in undercooked chicken, turkey, pork, raw clams and other shellfish and unpasteurized milk, moderate to severe symptoms, 10% have long term symptoms as meningitis
E. Colifound in ground beef, raw spinach, lettuce, alfalfa sprouts and unpasteurized juice, symptoms are severe commonly kidney failure and death
Listeriafound in unpasteurized cheese, spinach, cantaloupe, lunch meats, symptoms are severe causing septicemia, miscarriage, still birth, death
Staphylococcusfound in pimples, warts, boils and wounds, sputum, nail clippings etc., symptoms are acute to severe skin infection
Botulismfound in home canned low acid foods, deadly neurotoxin and the most severe food bourne illness
Norovirusfecal contamination of food, usually shellfish and salad, can spread from person to person with mild to moderate symptoms only lasting 1-2 days
Hepatitis A usually raw clams and oysters and contamination from dumpster causing severe permanent damage to the liver
Tape Wormraw fish mainly salmon can range from mild to moderate symptoms
Trichinellaraw uncooked meat, pork, bear, venison, mild to moderate symptoms
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