# Gas & Fluid Laws

kaytej's version from 2016-09-12 00:34

## Section

What is atmospheric pressure at sea level?760mmHg/1atm
kilo10^3
mili10^-3
centi10^-2
micro10^-6
1 atm = ? mmHg760 mmHg
760 mmHg = ? atm1 atm
101 kPa = ? mmHg760 mmHg
? atm = 101 kPa1 atm
Pascal is a measurement of?Pressure
What is Standard molar volume in L?22.7 L
Pressure is ?/?Force / Area
Newton is?Measurement of force
Amount of energy required to move an object?Force
Force?Mass x Acceleration
PascalN/m^2
mass/volumeDenisty
Kelvin = ? C + 273
C -> F(Cx1.8) + 32
Standard Temperature is? 273 K (O C)
What law relates Increase in temperature to an increase in volume?Charles Law
V1/T1 = V2/T2Charles Law
What law relates increase in pressure to decrease in volume?Boyle's Law
P1V1 = P2V2Boyle's Law
What law would apply to releasing o2 from ecylinder ?Boyle's Law
What law relates increase in pressure to increase in temperature?Gay-Lussac Law
In Avogadro's law what two things must be constant?Temperature and pressure
V1/n1 = V2/n2Avogadro's Law
What law states volume of gas is directly proportional to number of gas molecules?Avogadro's Law
Molecular weight of gas?is g/mole
A mole of gas has how many molecules?6.023 x 10^23 = Avogadro's #
PV = nRTIdeal Gas Law
What components must you have for Ideal gas lawPressure (atm), Volume (L), Temperature (Kelvin), n (Moles), R Lxatm/Kxmol
STP is?0 C, 1 atm
What is a mole?gram molecular weight of gas
P1 + P2 = Ptotal Dalton's Law
What law states the total pressure of a group of gases is equal to the sum of their individual partial pressures?Dalton's Law
How do you calculate partial pressure?% concentration/100 x total pressure
Using Dalton's Law - From partial pressure to %?mmHg/760 mmHg x 100
What describes pressure exerted by molecules in the gas phase (partial pressure) when equilibrium is achieved?Vapor Pressure
Number of molecules exiting the liquid for the gas phase equals number of molecules returning to the liquid from the gas phase?Equilibirum
What is vapor pressure a function of?Temperature
No increase or decrease in a systems total energy is referred to as?Adiabatic
When a system has no time for energy to equilibrate to surrounding environment?Adiabatic Changes
Compressed gas is allowed to escape freely into space, causing cooling of gas in cylinderJoule-Thompson effect
Average kinetic energy depends on ?Temperature
According to Kinetic Molecular Theory, different gases have the same kinetic energy if what is kept constant?Temperature
According to Kinetic Molecular Theory, lighter gases have a ______ speed than heavier gases?higher
The movement of molecules across a space down concentration gradientDiffusion
P1/T1 = P2/T2Gay-Lussac Law
Movement of a gas through a small openingEffusion
What law explains why smaller molecules diffuse faster?Graham's Law of Effusion
What is Graham's law?Rate of effusion is inversely proportional to the square root of the molecular mass
According to Graham's Law, Rate of diffusion/effusion is dependent on what two factors?Mass and speed of molecule
What law describes why NO2 is able to more quickly diffuse into air filled spaces vs. N2? Fick's Law
What law states that diffusion of gas is directly proportional to partial pressure gradient, membrane solubility of gas, membrane surface area but indirectly proportional to membrane thickness and molecular weight of gas?Fick's Law
What is movement of water across a semi-permeable membrane?Osmosis
At equilibrium, the force that stops osmosis is?Osmotic pressure
Osmotic pressure via plasma proteins is called?Oncotic pressure
Solubility of a solid with an increase or decrease in temperature?Increase in temperature
An increase in temperature will increase or decrease solubility of a gas in a liquid?Decrease solubility
Solubility of a gas in a liquid will increase with, increased or decreased temperature?Decrease in temperature
Hypothermic patients will retain anesthetic gas dissolved in blood and will take longer to wake up as a result of?Gas Solubility
What law describes the increase of gas dissolved in liquid with an increase in partial pressure of a gas when temperature is kept constant?Henry's Law
What type of flow is described as smooth, unchanging flow pattern in a closed system (no leaks), where layers do not mix ? Laminar Flow
What determines laminar flow?Viscosity
Low density, Low flow rate, Smooth Walls will contribute to which type of flow?Laminar
Turbulent flow is determined by what?Density
If you have a high density or high velocity this would contribute to what type of fluid flow? Turbulent
Reynold's number is dependent on what factors?Diameter, Velocity, Density / viscosity
What type of fluid flow is described with a Reynold # <2000 ?Laminar
What type of fluid flow is described by Reynold # > 3000?Turbulent
As flow passes through a narrow section in a tube, pressure drops and velocity increases, this refers to?Bernoulli Principle
The mechanism by which a meter dose inhaler creates a jet past a constriction that will aerosolize a drug can be explained by?Bernoulli Principle &/or Venturi Effect
Placing an opening at the area of constriction of a tube, and allowing air or a drug to be drawn in at the area of pressure drop describes?Venturi Effect
Which law describes radius as having the largest effect on flow?Poiseuille's Law
Which law states that length and viscosity will have inverse effects on fluid flow while pressure gradient and radius will have directly proportional effects on flow?Poiseuille's Law
Decreasing the length of a tube from 16 to 8 will have what effect on flow?Double flow
Increasing the radius in a tube from 5 to 10 will have what effect on flow?Increase flow by 16 fold
Increasing the length of a tube from 2 to 4 will have what effect on flow?Cut the flow in half
Radius of a tube has been decreased by half, effect on flow?Decrease flow by 16 fold or decrease flow by 1/16 of the original
Radius of a tube has been increased from 3 to 9 what will the effect on flow be?Increased flow by 81 fold
Radius of a tube has been decreased by 1/3rd, effect on flow? Decrease flow by 1/81st of original flow
Larger radius, less viscosity and shorter tube length will result in increased or decreased resistance to flow?Decreased
Which law can be applied to aneurysms?Laplace's Law
Which law states that increasing radius or pressure will increase wall tension?Laplace's Law
In Laplace's law, In what units is wall tension expressed in? N/m or N/cm
In Laplace's Law, pressure should be used in kPa, atm, mmHg, pascal?Pascal
According to Laplace's Law, ARDS patient's have increased, decreased or constant wall tension? Constant
In an ARDs patient will small alveoli empty or not empty into large alveoli?Empty into large alveoli
According to Laplace's law in healthy individuals pressure in alveoli is increased, decreased, constant?Constant
According to Laplace's law, the patient with healthy alveoli or with ARDs would have an increase in wall tension with increases in radius?Healthy Alveoli
In healthy patient's do small alveoli empty into large alveoli?No
P x R = T is what law?Laplace's Law for cylinders
1 mmHg = ? Pascals133 pascals
Pascal units are?N/m^2