# Gas & Fluid Laws

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kaytej's
version from
2016-09-12 00:34

## Section

Question | Answer |
---|---|

What is atmospheric pressure at sea level? | 760mmHg/1atm |

kilo | 10^3 |

mili | 10^-3 |

centi | 10^-2 |

micro | 10^-6 |

1 atm = ? mmHg | 760 mmHg |

760 mmHg = ? atm | 1 atm |

101 kPa = ? mmHg | 760 mmHg |

? atm = 101 kPa | 1 atm |

Pascal is a measurement of? | Pressure |

What is Standard molar volume in L? | 22.7 L |

Pressure is ?/? | Force / Area |

Newton is? | Measurement of force |

Amount of energy required to move an object? | Force |

Force? | Mass x Acceleration |

Pascal | N/m^2 |

mass/volume | Denisty |

Kelvin = ? | C + 273 |

C -> F | (Cx1.8) + 32 |

Standard Temperature is? | 273 K (O C) |

What law relates Increase in temperature to an increase in volume? | Charles Law |

V1/T1 = V2/T2 | Charles Law |

What law relates increase in pressure to decrease in volume? | Boyle's Law |

P1V1 = P2V2 | Boyle's Law |

What law would apply to releasing o2 from ecylinder ? | Boyle's Law |

What law relates increase in pressure to increase in temperature? | Gay-Lussac Law |

In Avogadro's law what two things must be constant? | Temperature and pressure |

V1/n1 = V2/n2 | Avogadro's Law |

What law states volume of gas is directly proportional to number of gas molecules? | Avogadro's Law |

Molecular weight of gas? | is g/mole |

A mole of gas has how many molecules? | 6.023 x 10^23 = Avogadro's # |

PV = nRT | Ideal Gas Law |

What components must you have for Ideal gas law | Pressure (atm), Volume (L), Temperature (Kelvin), n (Moles), R Lxatm/Kxmol |

STP is? | 0 C, 1 atm |

What is a mole? | gram molecular weight of gas |

P1 + P2 = Ptotal | Dalton's Law |

What law states the total pressure of a group of gases is equal to the sum of their individual partial pressures? | Dalton's Law |

How do you calculate partial pressure? | % concentration/100 x total pressure |

Using Dalton's Law - From partial pressure to %? | mmHg/760 mmHg x 100 |

What describes pressure exerted by molecules in the gas phase (partial pressure) when equilibrium is achieved? | Vapor Pressure |

Number of molecules exiting the liquid for the gas phase equals number of molecules returning to the liquid from the gas phase? | Equilibirum |

What is vapor pressure a function of? | Temperature |

No increase or decrease in a systems total energy is referred to as? | Adiabatic |

When a system has no time for energy to equilibrate to surrounding environment? | Adiabatic Changes |

Compressed gas is allowed to escape freely into space, causing cooling of gas in cylinder | Joule-Thompson effect |

Average kinetic energy depends on ? | Temperature |

According to Kinetic Molecular Theory, different gases have the same kinetic energy if what is kept constant? | Temperature |

According to Kinetic Molecular Theory, lighter gases have a ______ speed than heavier gases? | higher |

The movement of molecules across a space down concentration gradient | Diffusion |

P1/T1 = P2/T2 | Gay-Lussac Law |

Movement of a gas through a small opening | Effusion |

What law explains why smaller molecules diffuse faster? | Graham's Law of Effusion |

What is Graham's law? | Rate of effusion is inversely proportional to the square root of the molecular mass |

According to Graham's Law, Rate of diffusion/effusion is dependent on what two factors? | Mass and speed of molecule |

What law describes why NO2 is able to more quickly diffuse into air filled spaces vs. N2? | Fick's Law |

What law states that diffusion of gas is directly proportional to partial pressure gradient, membrane solubility of gas, membrane surface area but indirectly proportional to membrane thickness and molecular weight of gas? | Fick's Law |

What is movement of water across a semi-permeable membrane? | Osmosis |

At equilibrium, the force that stops osmosis is? | Osmotic pressure |

Osmotic pressure via plasma proteins is called? | Oncotic pressure |

Solubility of a solid with an increase or decrease in temperature? | Increase in temperature |

An increase in temperature will increase or decrease solubility of a gas in a liquid? | Decrease solubility |

Solubility of a gas in a liquid will increase with, increased or decreased temperature? | Decrease in temperature |

Hypothermic patients will retain anesthetic gas dissolved in blood and will take longer to wake up as a result of? | Gas Solubility |

What law describes the increase of gas dissolved in liquid with an increase in partial pressure of a gas when temperature is kept constant? | Henry's Law |

What type of flow is described as smooth, unchanging flow pattern in a closed system (no leaks), where layers do not mix ? | Laminar Flow |

What determines laminar flow? | Viscosity |

Low density, Low flow rate, Smooth Walls will contribute to which type of flow? | Laminar |

Turbulent flow is determined by what? | Density |

If you have a high density or high velocity this would contribute to what type of fluid flow? | Turbulent |

Reynold's number is dependent on what factors? | Diameter, Velocity, Density / viscosity |

What type of fluid flow is described with a Reynold # <2000 ? | Laminar |

What type of fluid flow is described by Reynold # > 3000? | Turbulent |

As flow passes through a narrow section in a tube, pressure drops and velocity increases, this refers to? | Bernoulli Principle |

The mechanism by which a meter dose inhaler creates a jet past a constriction that will aerosolize a drug can be explained by? | Bernoulli Principle &/or Venturi Effect |

Placing an opening at the area of constriction of a tube, and allowing air or a drug to be drawn in at the area of pressure drop describes? | Venturi Effect |

Which law describes radius as having the largest effect on flow? | Poiseuille's Law |

Which law states that length and viscosity will have inverse effects on fluid flow while pressure gradient and radius will have directly proportional effects on flow? | Poiseuille's Law |

Decreasing the length of a tube from 16 to 8 will have what effect on flow? | Double flow |

Increasing the radius in a tube from 5 to 10 will have what effect on flow? | Increase flow by 16 fold |

Increasing the length of a tube from 2 to 4 will have what effect on flow? | Cut the flow in half |

Radius of a tube has been decreased by half, effect on flow? | Decrease flow by 16 fold or decrease flow by 1/16 of the original |

Radius of a tube has been increased from 3 to 9 what will the effect on flow be? | Increased flow by 81 fold |

Radius of a tube has been decreased by 1/3rd, effect on flow? | Decrease flow by 1/81st of original flow |

Larger radius, less viscosity and shorter tube length will result in increased or decreased resistance to flow? | Decreased |

Which law can be applied to aneurysms? | Laplace's Law |

Which law states that increasing radius or pressure will increase wall tension? | Laplace's Law |

In Laplace's law, In what units is wall tension expressed in? | N/m or N/cm |

In Laplace's Law, pressure should be used in kPa, atm, mmHg, pascal? | Pascal |

According to Laplace's Law, ARDS patient's have increased, decreased or constant wall tension? | Constant |

In an ARDs patient will small alveoli empty or not empty into large alveoli? | Empty into large alveoli |

According to Laplace's law in healthy individuals pressure in alveoli is increased, decreased, constant? | Constant |

According to Laplace's law, the patient with healthy alveoli or with ARDs would have an increase in wall tension with increases in radius? | Healthy Alveoli |

In healthy patient's do small alveoli empty into large alveoli? | No |

P x R = T is what law? | Laplace's Law for cylinders |

1 mmHg = ? Pascals | 133 pascals |

Pascal units are? | N/m^2 |

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