Gas Exchange

yimocaxu's version from 2017-03-07 17:08

Section 1

Question Answer
What is gas exchangeFlow of gases between the alveolar air and the blood in the pulmonary circulation
What is relative concentration, partial pressure of gases, and movement of each gas dependent onalways occurs from a high-pressure area to a low-pressure area
What is dalton's lawEach gas in a mixture moves or diffuses according to its own partial pressure graient and independent of other gases
What does atmospheric air consist ofoxygen, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and water
What does residual air in the alveoli allowcontinuing gas exchange between expiration and inspiration
What is the role of pulmonary arteriesbring venous blood (dark blue red in color) from the right side of the heart to be oxygenated
What is the role of pulmonary veinsreturns oxygenated blood (bright red) to the left side of the heart, which then pumps it out into the system circulation

Section 2

Question Answer
What can diffusion be altered bythickness of the respiratory membrane, the presence of extra fluid, total surface area available for diffusion, and the thickness of the laveolar membranes
What happend when fluid accumulates in the alveoli or interstitial tissuediffusion, particularly of oxygen, is imparied
What does the presence of extra fluid result inmay impede blood flow through the pulmonary capillaries and incease surface tension in the alveoli, restricting expansion of the lung
What must happen for diffusion to occurventilation and perfusion must be adequate
When could the surface area be greatly reducedif part of the alveolar wall is destroyed by diseases such as emphysema, or fibrosis in the lungs
What is the role of the autoregulatory mechanismadjusts ventilatin and blood flow in an attempt to produce a good match
What happens if airflow is goodthe pulmonary aretioles dialate to maximize gas exchange

Section 3

Question Answer
What percentage of oxygen is dissolved in plasma1%
How is most oxygen transportedreversible bound to hemoglobin by iron molecules and is called oxyhemoglobin
When is hemoglobin termed fully saturatedWhen all four heme molecules in hemoglobin have taken up oxygen
The rate at which hemogobin binds or releases oxygen is dependant on what factorsPO2, PCo2, Temperature, and Plasma PH
25%Is the amount of bound oxygen that is released to the cells for metabolism during an etrythorcytes trip through systemic circulation
75%During an erythrocytes trip through systemic circulation, 75% of hemoglobin in venous blood is still saturated with oxygen

Section 4

Question Answer
What is carbon dioxidewaste product from cell metabolism
How is carbon dixoide transmitted7% dissolved in plasma, 20% loosely and reversibly bound to hemoglobin called carbaminoglobin
Carbon dioxide diffuses into whatred blood cells, then to carbonic acid, then to bicarbonate ions
What is the role of the enzyme carbonic anhydrasetransitions red blood cells to carbonic acid
What maintains blood PH at 7.35ratio of 20 part bicarbonate to 1 part carbonic acid
Spirometry-pulmonary functon testingtests pulmonary volumes, measuring volume and airflow times
Arterial blood gas determinations used to checkOxygen, carbond dioxide, bicarbonate levels, as well as serum Ph
OximetersMeasure Ox saturation
Exercise tolerance testingdiagnosis and monitors a patient's progress with chronic pulmonary disease

Section 5

Question Answer
RadiographyUsed to evaluate tumors or infections such as pneumonia or tuberculosis
BronchoscopyUseful in performing a biopsy or checking for the site of a lesion or bleeding
Culture and sensitivity testsexudates from upper respiratory tract or sputum specimens can identify pathogens and assist in determining approprite therapy