Fungi and Parasites

siyeyazo's version from 2016-02-18 18:33

FUNgal facts

Question Answer
name 2 fungal infections transmitted by asexual sporeshisto, coccido
what are conidia?asexual fungal spores
which fungus is found in bat droppings, hides in macrophagesHISTO
fungus which disseminates to skin and bone, causes granulomatous lung nodulesblasto
fungus from central americablasto
fungus found after earthquakes, causes meningitiscoccidio
shape of dimorphic fungi at room temp v BODY temproom temp = "mold". body temp = "yeast"
which is smaller than RBChisto, a bunch of them in macs
which is the same size as RBCblasto
histo v blasto v coccidio-- how do they cause lung disease?histo and coccidio = granulomas, blasto = inflammatory
presentation of tinea versicolorhypopigmented patches: degradation of lipids = acids = melanocyte damage
tinea pedis, cruris, capitis: shape of lesioncentral clearing, caused by dermatophytes
reservoir for tinea pedis, cruris, capitisPETS!
Candida in IVDAendocarditis
aspergillus prefers which Immunocompromised group - and what disease is caused?CGD! = invasive aspergillosis
test for cryptococcal polysaccharide antigenlatex agglutinin test, india ink, mucicarmine
pneumocystis jirovecii findings on CXRdiffuse intersitial pneumonia,
sporothrix diseaselocal ulcer with nodules along the draining lymphatics

Fungal morphologies or findings:


Question Answer
tinea pedis, cruris, capitis: describe KOH prepmold hyphae, NOT DIMORPHIC
spaghetti and meatball appearance - what prep to get?, name bugTinea versicolor: MALEZZIA furfur KOH prep
fungus found with spherule larger than RBC, with endosporesCoccidio - spherule, not yeast, in tissue
budding yeast with captains wheel formation, found in latin americaparacoccidio
psuedohyphae and budding yeast at 20 Ccandida
germ tube formation at 37 Ccandida
45 degree branching septate hyphae with fruiting bodies that look like broomsticksaspergillus
wide angled non septate hyphaemucor
narrow based, unequal buddingcryptococcocus
only dimorphic opportunistic funguscandida.
soab bubble lesions in the braincryptococcus
yeast form, silver stainPCP - do a biopsy or lavage
cigar shaped budding yeast (unequal budding)sporothrix

parasite morphologies :

Question Answer
binucleated trophozoites, flagellagiardia
phagocytoses RBCsentamoeba histiolytica
acid fast cystscryptosporidium
trophozoites, and cysts with 4 nucleientamoeba histiolytica
trophozoite ring form or RBC schizont with merezoitesmalaria
maltese cross and ring forms, RBCs without pigment babesia
flagellated, cannot form cyststrichomonas - cannot survive outside the human

parasite presentations/ case history clues :

Question Answer
flask shaped ulcer, bloody diarrheaentamoeba histiolytica
severe diarrhea in AIDS pts - what stain?acid fast, cryptosporidium, MAC
chorioretinitis, hydrocephalus, intracranial calcificationstoxo - CONGENITAL
rapidly fatal meningoencephalitis, after swimming in freshwater lakesNaegleria fowleri
enlarged lymph nodes, recurring fever, somnolence, comaafrican sleeping sickness
dilated cardiomyopathy, megacolon, dilated esophaguschagas disease
spiking fevers, massive hepatosplenomegaly, pancytopenialeishmania donovani =kala azar
every other day feversP vivax or ovale
daily fevers with kidney, lung and CNS involvementP falciparum
vaginitis, itching, burning, foul smelling greenish dischargetrich
fever and hemolytic anemiaBabesia


Question Answer
african sleeping sicknessTse tse fly, painful bite
chagas diseasereduviid bug, poops on you

parasite fun facts

Question Answer
Naegleria how do they enter the braincribiform plate
naegleria testfind ameobas in the spinal fluid
mechanism of cerebral malariaparasitized RBCs (trophozoites) occlude capillaries in the brain, lung, kidney
malaria mech of feversmerezoites burst out of RBC
macrophages containing amastigotesLeishmania! RE macs.
mechanism of african sleeping sickness recurrent feversantigenic variation
mechanism of leish hepatosplenomegalyL donovani invades the reticuloendothelial cells of the liver and spleen

parasite treatment

Question Answer
entamoeba histiolyticametronidazole and iodoquinol
cryptosporidiumnone. prevent by watching city's water supplies
toxosulfadiazine + pyrimethamine
Naegleriahope for the best.
T gambiense, rhodienseSuramin and Melaroposol
T cruzinifurtimox
L. donovanisodium stibogluconate = antimony
P falciparumstart with chloroquine, mefloquine if resistant
Vivax/ovaleadd primaquine for liver hypnozoite forms
Babesiaquinine, clindamycin i guess it's above the diaphragm..

helminth presentations and treatments

anal pruritisenterobiumingested eggs
intestinal infection, eggs seen in fecesascaris lumbricoidesingested eggs
inflammation of the muscle and periorbital edematrichinellaundercooked pork
vomiting, diarrhea, anemiastrongyloidesskin penetration
sucks blood from intestinal wall causing a microcytic anemianecator or ankylostoma duodenalelarvae penetrate feet, cutaneous larva migrans
skin inflammation and ulcerationdracunculus medinensisdrinking water
hyperpigmented skin, river blindnessonchocercosisfemale Blackflies
allergic reaction to microfilariaonchocercosisfemale black flies
worm crawling in the conjunctiva, swelling in the skinloa loadeer fly, horse fly, mango fly
blockage of lymph drainagewucheria bancrofti, elephantiasisfemale mosquito
granulomatous inflammation, blindness in the retinatoxocara canisfood contaminated with eggs
visceral larva migransm often gets to eye, hearttoxocara canisfood contaminated with eggs
swiss cheese in the braintenia soliumundercooked pork
vitamin B12 deficiencydiphyllobothrium latumraw freshwater fish
liver cysts, cause anaphlyaxis when antigens are releasedechinococcusingested eggs from dog feces
granulomas, fibrosis and inflammation of the liver and spleenschistosoma mansonisnail hosts, penetrate skin
squamous cell carcinoma of the bladderschistosoma hematobiumsnails are host, cercariae penetrate skin
inflammation of the biliary tract causing pigmented gallstonesclonorchis sinernsisundercooked fish
inflammation and secondary bacterial infection in the lungs, hemoptysisparagonimus westermanicrab meat

helminth treatment and type of worm

Question Answer Column 3
enterobius-bendazolesnematode (round)
ascaris-bendazolesnematode (round)
strongyloidesbendazoles,ivermectinnematode (round)
draculuncusniridazolenematode (round)
onchocercaivermectinnematode (round)
loa loadiethylcarbamazine nematode (round)
wucheriadiethylcarbamazinenematode (round)
toxocaradiethylcarbamazinenematode (round)
taenia soliumpraziquantelCestode (tape)
diphyllobothrium latumpraziquantelcestode (tape)
echinococcusbendazolescestode (tape)
schistosomapraziquanteltrematode = fluke = flatworm