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Fungi

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Updated 2007-03-12 07:43

Fungi Classification Table

Medical Classification

Cutaneous: Infects superficial keratinized structures (hair, nails, skin).
Subcutaneous: Infects subcutaneous skin and is introduced by skin trauma.
Systemic: Usually cause lung infections which are asymptomatic and self-limiting, but these fungi may sometimes cause disseminated disease in which the organisms grow in other organs and may result in death.
Opportunistic: Opportunistic fungi fail to induce disease in most immunocompentent people but can do so in those with impaired host defenses.

 

FungiMedical classification
Malassezia furfurCutaneous
Microsporum species, Trichophyton species, Epidermophyton fluccosumCutaneous
Sporothrix schenckiiSubcutaneous
Coccidioides immitisSystemic
Paracoccidiodes brasiliensisSystemic
Histoplasma capsulatumSystemic
Blastomyces dermatitidisSystemic
Cryptococcus neoformansOpportunistic
Candida albicansOpportunistic
Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus nigerOpportunistic
Mucor speciesOpportunistic
Pneumocystis cariniiOpportunistic
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Morphology

FungiMorphology
Malassezia furfurDimorphic: “spaghetti n’ meatballs” with KOH stain
Microsporum species, Trichophyton species, Epidermophyton fluccosumBranched hyphae with KOH; secretes keratinase
Sporothrix schenckiiTemp sensitive dimorphic; found on rose thorns; silver stain or KOH
Coccidioides immitisTemp sensitive dimorphic; inhaled from soil in desert areas of SW USA
Paracoccidiodes brasiliensisTemp sensitive dimorphic; inhaled from soil in Latin America
Histoplasma capsulatumTemp sensitive dimorphic; silver stain; intracellular; inhaled from bird droppings in Mississippi river valley
Blastomyces dermatitidisTemp sensitive dimorphic; silver stain; inhaled form soil in Mississippi river valley
Cryptococcus neoformansYeast with thick polysaccharide capsule; India-Ink stain; inhaled from pigeon droppings
Candida albicansYeast and pseudohyphae: “spaghetti n’ meatballs”; normal skin, GI and mouth inhabitant; KOH or silver stain
Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus nigerBranching hyphae ; inhaled from environment
Mucor speciesMolds in soil ; branching hyphae
Pneumocystis cariniiClassified as a yeast from molecular analysis, but clinically considered a protozoa; silver stain
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Clinical

Sporothrix schenckii -> Sporotrichosis
Coccidioides immitis -> Coccidioidomycosis
Paracoccidiodes brasiliensis -> Paracoccidioidomycosis
Histoplasma capsulatum -> Histoplasmosis
Blastomyces dermatitidis -> Blastomycosis
Cryptococcus neoformans -> Cryptococcosis
Candida albicans -> Candidiasis
Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger -> Aspergillosis
Mucor species -> Mucormycosis
Pneumocystis carinii -> Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP)
FungiClinical
Malassezia furfurPityriasis versicolor: Hypo or hyper pigementation of skin
Microsporum species, Trichophyton species, Epidermophyton fluccosumDermatophytosis: Tineas: corporis (ringworm), cruris, pedis, capitis, ungium
Sporothrix schenckiiUlcerating nodules along lymphatic tracts
Coccidioides immitisAsymptomatic; pneumonia; disseminated
Paracoccidiodes brasiliensisAsymptomatic; pneumonia; disseminated
Histoplasma capsulatumAsymptomatic; pneumonia; disseminated
Blastomyces dermatitidisAsymptomatic; pneumonia; disseminated
Cryptococcus neoformansMeningitis; pneumonia; skin lesions
Candida albicansNormal host: Thrush, vaginitis, diaper rash; Compromised host: esophageal candidiasis; disseminated
Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus nigerAllergic reactrion; aspergilloma (fungus ball); invasive; aflatoxin
Mucor speciesRhinocerebral disease; pulmonary
Pneumocystis cariniiPCP: Common in late stage AIDS patients
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Treatment

FungiTreatment
Malassezia furfurDandruff shampoo (selenium sulfide), Topical imidazole
Microsporum species, Trichophyton species, Epidermophyton fluccosumImidazole, Griseofulvin
Sporothrix schenckiiKI, Amphotericin B, Itraconazole
Coccidioides immitisAmphotericin B, Fluconazole
Paracoccidiodes brasiliensisItraconazole
Histoplasma capsulatumItraconazole, Ketoconazole, Amphotericin B
Blastomyces dermatitidisItraconazole, Ketoconazole, Amphotericin B
Cryptococcus neoformansAmphotericin B, Fluconazole
Candida albicansFluconazole, Ketoconazole, Amphotericin B
Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus nigerAmphotericin B, Surgery, Corticosteroids
Mucor speciesAmphotericin B, Surgery
Pneumocystis cariniiTMP-SMX
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