Functions of the Mouth, Oesophagus and related diseases

esbaid's version from 2016-01-23 21:37


Question Answer
Name two enzymes found in salivaSalivary amylase & salivary lipase
Name the 3 salivary glandsParotid (under ears), Sublingual and Submandibular
What do the salivary glands produce?Mucous,fluid, IgA, Lysozyme and lactoferrin
Which salivary products have antibacterial function?IgA, lysozyme and lactoferrin
What are Acinar cells?The basic secretory units of salivary glands, they have a berry appearance, they produce alpha-amylase into ducts which converts starch into maltose
What are Ductal cells?Cells that produce mucous, secrete water & electrolytes (which bathe enzymes produced by acinar cells)
What is the histologic type, secretion and % of total saliva secretion of the parotid gland?Serous, Water and 20%
What is the histologic type, secretion and % of total saliva secretion of the submandibular gland?Mixed, Viscous + and 70%
What is the histologic type, secretion and % of total saliva secretion of the sublingual gland?Mucous, viscous ++ and 10%
Lactoferrin binds..? & is ...?Iron, Bacteriocidal
Lysozyme attacks the bacterial...?Cell wall
How do Acinar and Ductal cells contribute to saliva being hypotonic and alkaline?Acinar cells secrete primary ISOTONIC solution rich in Na+&Cl-, Ductal cells then reabsorb NaCl & exchange it for K+ & HCO3-
What is Sjögren's syndrome and who does it commonly affect?Auto-immune attack of salivary & tear glands which results in dry mouth (Xerostomia) & eyes, commonly affects woman associated with rheumatoid arthritis
What is mumps virus (parotitis)An acute infectious and contagious disease caused by a mumps virus, characterised by fever, inflammation and swelling of the parotid gland. Headaches & fevers are early symptoms
What is the ganglion of the 7th (facial nerve), which glands does it innervate and what is the effect?Otic ganglion, submandibular and sublingual glands and secretion (for both glands)
What is the ganglion of the 9th (glossopharyngeal nerve), which gland does it innervate and what is the effect?Submandibular ganglion, parotid gland and secretion
Sympathetic innervation of all salivary glands results in...?Vasoconstriction & thick mucus secretion
Name the 4 phases of swallowingOral preparatory phase, Oral phase, Pharyngeal phase, Oesophageal phase
Describe the Pharyngeal phaseOnce the pharyngeal swallow is triggered, the bolus is transported through the pharynx with coordinated closure of the glottis via the epiglottis. Breathing is stopped and the upper oesophageal sphincter relaxes
What is the oesophageal hiatus?The hole in the diaphragm through which the oesophagus & vagus nerve passes
What increases the likelihood of GORD?Obesity, Hiatus hernia (rolling (pokes into diaphrahm) / sliding (blockage above sphincter), pregnancy, Zollinger-Ellison syndrome
What is Zollinger-Ellison syndrome?When you make too much gastrin, leading to too much acid secretion in the stomach thus reflux