Functions and Structures of the urinary system

tigrebright's version from 2015-10-18 22:52

Section 1

Question Answer
kidneysfilter the blood to remove waste products, maintain electrolyte concentrations, and remove excess water to maintain the fluid volume within the body
urineliquid waste products to be excreted
urinary bladderstores urine until it is excreted
urethratransports urine from the bladder through the urethral meatus, where it is excreted
prostatea gland of the male reproductive system that surrounds the male urethra. disorders of this gland can disrupt the flow of urine

Section 2

Question Answer
homeostasisthe process through which the body maintains a constant internal environment
ureathe major waste product of protein metabolism
creatininea waste product of muscle metabolism
urinary tractconsists of 2 kidneys, one bladder, and a urethra
genitourinary tractthe two body systems referred to together-urinary system and reproductive organs
renalpertaining to the kidneys
retroperitonealbehind the peritoneum
renal cortexthe outer region of the kidney
cortexthe outer portion of an organ
medullathe inner region of the kidney; contains most of the urine-collecting tubules

Section 3

Question Answer
nephronsthe microscopic functional units of each kidney
reabsorptionthe return to the blood of some of the substances that were removed during filtration
glomerulusa cluster of capillaries surrounded by a cup-shaped membrane, and a renal tubule
Bowman's capsulethe cup-shaped membrane surrounding a glomerulus
renal arterythe entry point for blood entering the kidney
renal veinthe re-entry point for filtered blood returning to the bloodstream
renal pelvisa funnel-shaped area inside each kidney surrounded by the renal cortex and medulla. this is where the newly formed urine from the nephrons collects before it flows into the ureters.
ureters2 narrow tubes which transport urine from the kidney to the bladder
peristalsisa series of wave-like contractions which moves urine down each ureter to the bladder
ureteral orificesopening in the wall of the urinary bladder through which urine drains into the bladder

Section 4

Question Answer
urinary bladderoval, hollow muscular organ that is a reservoir for urine before it is excreted from the body
rugaefolds in the bladder that allow it to expand when full and contract when empty
urethrathe tube extending from the bladder to the exterior of the body
urinary sphinctersmuscular rings that control the flow of urine from the bladder into the urethra, and out of the urethra through the urethral meatus
urethral meatusthe external opening of the urethra
meatusthe external opening of a canal
female urethralocated between the clitoris and the opening of the vagina; transports only urine
male urethratransports urine and semen through the urethral meatus, located at the tip of the penis
urinationaka voiding or micturition; the normal process of excreting urine

Section 5

Question Answer