Functions and structures of the female reproductive system

tigrebright's version from 2015-11-23 01:07

Section 1

Question Answer
function of the female reproductive systemthe creation and support of new life
ovariesproduce mature eggs to be fertilized by the sperm
uterusprovides the environment for the developing child
external female genitalialocated posterior to the mons pubis
mons pubisa rounded, fleshy prominence located over the pubic symphysis
vulvathe structures of the external female genitalia
labia majora and labia minorathe vaginal lips that protect the other external genitalia and the urethral meatus
urethral meatusthe external opening of the urethra
clitorisan organ of sensitive, erectile tissue located anterior to the urethral meatus and vaginal roifice
Bartholin's glandsproduce a mucus secretion to lubricate the vagina; located on either side of the vaginal orifice
vaginal orificethe exterior opening of the vagina
hymena mucous membrane that partially covers this opening and can be torn either during the first instance of intercourse or other activity
breastsmade up of fat, connective tissue and the mammary glands
mammary glandsmilk-producing glands that develop during puberty
lactiferous ductscarry milk from the mammary glands to the nipple
areolathe dark-pigmented area around the nipple

Section 2

Question Answer
internal female genitalialocated within the pelvic cavity where they are protected by the bony pelvis
ovariesa pair of small, almond-shaped organs located in the lower abdomen
folliclea fluid-filled sac containing a single ovum
ovafemale gametes; normally one ovum matures and is released each month
fallopian tubesextend from the upper end of the uterus to a point near but not attached to an ovary
infundibulumthe funnel-shaped opening into the fallopian tube near the ovary
fimbriaethe fringed, finger-like extensions of the infundibulum; their role is to catch the mature ovum when it leaves the ovary
uterusa pear-shaped organ with muscular walls and a mucous membrane lining filled with a rich supply of blood vessels; located between the bladder and the rectum and midway between the sacrum and pubic bone
anteflexionthe normal, bent forward position of the uterus
3 parts of the uterusfundus, corpus, cervix
fundusthe bulging, rounded part above the entrance of the fallopian tubes
corpusthe body of the uterus; the middle portion
cervixthe lower, narrower portion of the uterus

Section 3

Question Answer
tissues of the uterusperimetrium, myometrium, endometrium
perimetriumthe tough, membranous outer layer
myometriummuscular middle layer
endometriuminner layer consisting of specialized epithelial mucosa that is rich in blood vessels
vaginathe muscular tube lined with mucosa that extends from the cervix to the outside of the body
menstruationthe normal periodic discharge of the endometrial lining and unfertilized egg
menarchethe beginning of the menstrual function
menopausethe normal termination of the menstrual function in a woman during middle age
perimenopauseterm used to designate the transition phase between regular periods and no periods at all

Section 4

Question Answer
ovulationthe release of a mature egg from a follicle on the surface of one of the ovaries
corpus luteumthe ruptured follicle after the egg has been released; it secretes the hormone progesterone during the second half of the cycle
coitussexual intercourse or copulation
conceptionoccurs when a sperm penetrates and fertilized the descending ovum
zygoyea single cell formed at conception; the beginning of a new life
implantationthe embedding of the zygote into the lining of the uterus
embryothe developing child from implantation through the 8th week of pregnancy
fetusthe developing child from the 9th week to birth
fraternal twinsresult from the fertilization of separate ova by separate sperm cells; these develop into two separate embryos
identical twinsformed by the fertilization of a single egg cell by a single sperm that divides to from two embyos

Section 5

Question Answer
chorionthe thin outer membrane that encloses the embryo; it contributes to the formation of the placenta
placentaa temporary organ that forms within the uterus to allow the exchange of nutrients, oxygen and waste products between mother and fetus without allowing maternal blood and fetal blood to mix
afterbirththe placenta and fetal membranes expelled after delivery
amniotic sacthe innermost membrane that surrounds the embryo in the uterus
amniotic cavitythe fluid-filled space between the embryo and the amniotic sac
amniotic fluidthe liquid that protects the fetus and makes possible its floating motions
umbilical cordthe tube that carries blood, oxygen, and nutrients from the placenta to the developing child
navelformed where the umbilical cord was attached to the fetus

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