Functions and structures of the endocrine system

tigrebright's version from 2015-11-16 14:41

Section 1

Question Answer
homeostasisthe process through which the body maintains a constant internal environment
hormoneschemical messengers secreted by endocrine glands directly into the bloodstream
endocrine glandsproduce hormones and do not have ducts
pituitary glandsecretes hormones that control the activity of other endocrine glands
adrenocorticotropic hormonestimulates the growth and secretions of the adrenal cortex
follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates the secretion of estrogen and the growth of ova in the ovaries of the female, and the production of sperm in the male
growth hormoneregulates the growth of bone, muscle, and other body tissues
interstitial cell-stimulating hormonestimulates ovulation in the female and the secretion of testosterone in the male
lactogenic hormonestimulates and maintains the secretion of breast milk
luteinizing hormonestimulates ovulation in the female and the secretion of testosterone in the male
melanocyte-stimulating hormoneincreases the production of melanin in melanocytes, causing darkening of skin pigmentation
thyroid-stimulating hormonestimulates the secretion of hormones by the thyroid gland

Section 2

Question Answer
antidiuretic hormonehelps control blood pressure by reducing the amount of water excreted through the kidneys; it is secreted by the hypothalamus and stored and released in the pituitary gland
oxytocinstimulates uterine contractions during childbirth;controls postnatal hemorrhage and stimulates milk in the mammary glands after childbirth
pitocina synthetic form of oxytocin
pineal glandvery small endocrine gland located in the central portion of the brain; influences the sleep-wake cycle
melatoninhormone that influences the sleep-wake portions of the circadian cycle
circadian cyclerefers to the biological functions that occur within a 24 hour period
thyroid glandregulates the body's metabolism;influence growth and functioning of the nervous system
thyroxine(T4) and triiodothyronine(T3)the two primary thyroid hormones that regulate the rate of metabolism and affect the growth and rate of function of many other body systems
calcitonina hormone that works with the parathyroid hormone to decrease calcium levels in the blood and tissues by moving calcium into storage in the bones and teeth

Section 3

Question Answer
parathyroid glandsregulate calcium levels throughout the body
parathyroid hormoneworks with calcitonin to regulate the calcium levels in the blood and tissues
thymussecretes a hormone that functions as part of the immune system
thymosinplays an important part in the immune system by stimulating the maturation of lymphocytes into T cells
pancreasfunctions as part of the digestive and endocrine systems
pancreatic isletsthe parts of the pancreas that control blood sugar levels and glucose metabolism throughout the body
isleta small isolated mass of one type of tissue within a larger mass of a different type
glucoseblood sugar
glucagonhormone that increases the glucose levels in the bloodstream by stimulating the liver to convert glycogen into glucose
insulinsecreted by the beta cells in response to high levels of glucose in the bloodstream

Section 4

Question Answer
adrenal glandsprimary function is to control electrolyte levels within the body
adrenal cortexouter portion of the adrenal gland
adrenal medullamiddle portion of the adrenal gland
electrolytesmineral substances normally found in the blood
androgenssex hormones;secreted by the gonads, adrenal cortex and fat cells
corticosteroidssteroid hormones produced by the adrenal cortex
aldosteronea corticosteroid that regulates the salt and water levels in the body
cortisola corticosteroid that has an anti-inflammamtory action and regulates the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and proteins in the body
epinephrineadrenaline; stimulates the sympathetic nervous system in response to physical injury to to mental stress
norepinephrineboth a hormone and a neurohormone;secreted as a hormone by the adrenal medulla;as a neurohormone by the sympathetic nervous systme