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Functional Anatomy- Neck and Back

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anskorczewski12's version from 2016-08-04 03:43

Section

Question Answer
Spinous and Transverse Processes for...muscles attachments (deep back muscles), and used as levers to move spinal column
Articular processes for...prevent one vertebrae from slipping out (restrict movement); no weight bearing except when rising from flexed or completely laterally flexed
space that allows spinal nerve to exit as a rootintervertebral foramen
thoracic vertebrae are often injured with..compression fractures
spinal taps are done..inferior to L2 (take CSF from lumbar region to diagnose CNS disorders)
These have 2 parts and separate all vertebrae (C2 to S1)fibrocartilaginous intervertebral discs (made of nucleus pulposis and anular fibrosis)
Facet/Hyaline jointssynovial joints where superior and inferior articular processes join; allow motion (gliding)
imbibitionpressure from moving muscles that pushes nutrient-filled fluid to tissues where it is needed
anterior longitudinal ligamentstrong, flat, firmly attached to front side of bodies; prevents excessive backward flexion and anterior herniation of nucleus pulposis; most likely injured in hyperextension (whiplash)
posterior longitudinal ligamentin vertebral canal, on posterior body, prevents hyper forward flexion (pedicles and lamina on disc also assist with this)
only capitis muscle to not go to skullobliquus capitis inferior
suboccipital trianglesides (rectus capitis posterior major, obliquus capitis inferior, obliquus capitis superior), floor (atlanto-occipital membrane, posterior arch of atlas), roof (semispinalis capitis), contains suboccipital n. and vertebral a.
hyoid bone purposelandmark bone, attachment for muscles, keeps neck shape and airway open
thoracic outlet syndromepinching of brachial plexus at the 1.anterior scalene 2.clavicle 3.pectoralis minor (an extra rib from transverse process of C7 also)
phrenic nerveon top of anterior scalene, (under SCM) goes to diaphragm
vagus nerve(CN X) runs down side of trachea from medulla oblongata; controls muscles of soft palate, laryngeal muscles, parasympathetic effects in smooth muscle of thorax and abdomen; also helps heart rate; injury causes "horseness" of the voice
Bones of the neckvertebrae (cervical and upper thoracic), clavicle, manubrium, hyoid bone, mandible, skull
"adam's apple" laryngeal prominence, made of thyroid cartilage
temporomandibular jointbetween zygomatic process and mandible, may feel "clicking" here
chinmental protuberance
Erb's pointon lateral neck, where many nerves go through (why doctors go through anterior region to fix herniated discs)
most commonly fractured vertebraeT12
most common area for nucleus pulposis to herniate into anular fibrosis lumbar region
sciaticalower back and hip pain from herniated lumbar IV that compresses sciatic n.
whiplashsevere hyperextension of neck, may rupture anterior longitudinal l.
lateral curves of the spinescoliosis (may cause asymmetrical weakness of intrinsic muscles or pelvic tilt)
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Common Conditions

Question Answer
Scoleosisinvoluntary "tone" causing imbalance on spine, increased lordosis common in young girls, if going left, usually creates additional problems
Torticolliscontraction of 1 SCM causing head tild and changed head shape (helmets help reshape skull)
Spinal Accessory N. injuryproblems with trapezius and SCM; can be from trauma, damage during surgery; symptoms are shoulder pain, scapular winging, weakness/atrophy of trapezius
Carotid occulsionblock at the carotid a. causing less O2 to get to brain (fix with endarterectomy where you go in and scrap out artery so more blood passes)
Horner's syndromeproblems with cervical sympathetic trunk, causing tosis (drooping) of the eye
tosisdrooping
injury to recurrent laryngeal n.horseness and vocal issues
aspirationfood/substance going into airway (typically r. lung)
tracheostomyhole/incision in throat to provide a passage to airway and easily set up ventilation
syncope/ carotid sinus hypersensitivitytemporary loss of consciousness from body bing unable to adjust to change of blood pressure
GERDreflux of stomach acid through esophageal sphincter
esophageal cancer symptomsregurgitation of food, chest pain (nonspecific), difficulty swallowing, heartburn, vomit blood, weight loss, horse voice/cough that lasts over 2 weeks
acute respiratory distress syndromepulmonary edema and hypoxemia, associated with dyspnea, hypoxia, infiltrates found on chest radiograph, and fluid impacting ability to expand lungs
hypoxemialowered oxygen in blood
hypoxianot enough oxygen getting to tissues
dyspneadifficulty breathing, labored breath, short breath; causes lower energy, can be acute or chronic (seen with ARDS)
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) causesemphysema, chronic bronchitis (inflammed bronchus and increased mucus in airway) , asthema
Spinal stenosisnarrowing of central canal (usually in lumbar region), can impact the spinal nerves and gait
2nd most common issue (to common cold)Back strain/sprain
Pulmonary collapse may be frompneumothorax (air coming into the lungs/chest cavity from outside), hydrothorax (water in thoracic cavity), hemothorax (blood in thoracic cavity)
Fix a pulmonary collapsethoracentesis (tube/syringe into cavity to take fluid out), or chest tube
Pulmonary Embolismblock in one pulmonary a. (usually from blood clot from legs to lungs), lying down is bad for this
Hemoptysisexpectoration (spitting up) of blood (may occur with COPD and chronic distress
Hematemesisthrowing up blood
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Spinal cord injuries

Question Answer
C1-C3no function below head level, ventilator needed
C4-C5tetraplegia, but can respirate
C6-C8loss of hand and variable upper extremity function
T1-T9paraplegia, trunk control variable with level of lesion
T10-L1some thigh function, may use long leg braces
L2-L3most leg function, short leg brace may be needed
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