muscles attachments (deep back muscles), and used as levers to move spinal column
Articular processes for...
prevent one vertebrae from slipping out (restrict movement); no weight bearing except when rising from flexed or completely laterally flexed
space that allows spinal nerve to exit as a root
thoracic vertebrae are often injured with..
spinal taps are done..
inferior to L2 (take CSF from lumbar region to diagnose CNS disorders)
These have 2 parts and separate all vertebrae (C2 to S1)
fibrocartilaginous intervertebral discs (made of nucleus pulposis and anular fibrosis)
synovial joints where superior and inferior articular processes join; allow motion (gliding)
pressure from moving muscles that pushes nutrient-filled fluid to tissues where it is needed
anterior longitudinal ligament
strong, flat, firmly attached to front side of bodies; prevents excessive backward flexion and anterior herniation of nucleus pulposis; most likely injured in hyperextension (whiplash)
posterior longitudinal ligament
in vertebral canal, on posterior body, prevents hyper forward flexion (pedicles and lamina on disc also assist with this)
only capitis muscle to not go to skull
obliquus capitis inferior
sides (rectus capitis posterior major, obliquus capitis inferior, obliquus capitis superior), floor (atlanto-occipital membrane, posterior arch of atlas), roof (semispinalis capitis), contains suboccipital n. and vertebral a.
hyoid bone purpose
landmark bone, attachment for muscles, keeps neck shape and airway open
thoracic outlet syndrome
pinching of brachial plexus at the 1.anterior scalene 2.clavicle 3.pectoralis minor (an extra rib from transverse process of C7 also)
on top of anterior scalene, (under SCM) goes to diaphragm
(CN X) runs down side of trachea from medulla oblongata; controls muscles of soft palate, laryngeal muscles, parasympathetic effects in smooth muscle of thorax and abdomen; also helps heart rate; injury causes "horseness" of the voice