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Functional Anatomy-Exam 3 Questions

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anskorczewski12's version from 2016-08-08 21:46

Section

Question Answer
In which region/s are the intervertebral discs thicker? Cervical and lumbar
What is the main action of the deep back muscles?Maintain posture of axial skeleton
What is the purpose of the spinous and transverse processes?Provide attachment for deep back muscles and levers for moving the spinal column
What is the purpose of the articular processes?Prevent one vertebrae from slipping out (only bear weight when rising from flexed position or laterally flexed to limit)
What is the strongest cervical vertebrae?Axis (C2)
What is a common vertebrae for arthritisL5 (because of curve change)
What holds the dens in place?Transverse l. of the atlas
What is the most commonly fractured non-cervical vertebrae?T12 (major transition to lumbar features)
Purpose of the sacrum:provides strength and stability to pelvis and transmits weight to hip bones (contains cauda equina)
Common causes of back pain: herniated nucleus pulposus in lumbar region (lower back pain); nervous tissue injured (causes referred pain); muscular, joint, or fibroskeletal pain (usually localized pain); strain from erector spinae (bending to lift something)
Common causes of herniated nucleus pulposus(usually posterolaterally) violent hyperflexion (football injury)
What is sciatica?Lower back and hip pain from herniated lumbar IV that compresses sciatic n.
What is lumbar spinal stenosis?Narrowing of vertebral foramen in one or more lumbar vertebrae (from IV changing with age; may compress spinal n. roots) gait
What is the only structure limiting extension of vertebral column?Anterior longitudinal ligament
What type of herniated disc causes acute pain/localized painone that puts pressure on posterior longitudinal l.
What kind of pain comes from compression on spinal n. roots by herniated discreferred pain (perceived as coming from area that the n. innervates)
What muscles play a role in lumbar stabilization and prevent back strains/sprains?Anterolateral abdominal muscles
What happens if a needle punctures thoracic pleura/ wallpneumothorax (air rushes into cavity) or hemothorax (if injury to intercostal/internal thoracic vessels) causing pulmonary collapse
How do you treat pulmonary collapse?Thoracentesis or (if major amounts of fluid and air) chest tube
What may happen if there is just a partial occlusion of the carotid artery?Transient ischemic attack
What type of injury causes pupils to contract and drooping (ptosis) of the eyelids?Horner syndrome/ a lesion of the cervical sympathetic trunk
Where do the intrinsic back muscles arise from?Thoracolumbar fascia
What are the chief extensers of the vertebral column?Erector spinae
What is the only capitis muscle not attached to the cranium?Obliquus capitis inferior
Describe the path of the spinal cordBegins at medulla oblongata, travels through vertebral canal ends at conus medullaris (L1/L2), then goes into cauda equina
Functions of SCMextend head at AO joint; flex cervical vertebrae (if head flexed by hyoid muscles), or flex lower neck and keep head level (if acting antagonistically with extensors)
Functions of the suprahyoid and infrahyoid muscles: floor of mouth, help tongue elevate/depress hyoid and larynx for swallowing and speaking
What are the anterior prevertebral muscles?longus colli, longus capitis, rectus capitis anterior, anterior scalene
What are the lateral prevertebral muscles?rectus capitis lateralis, splenius capitis, levator scapulae, middle and posterior scalene
What is the only complete ring of the tracheacricoid cartilage
Sections of the pharynxnasopharynx, oropharynx, laryngopharynx
what is the thoracic cage divided intomediastinum (superior, inferior-anterior, middle, posterior); and pulmonary cavities
Functions of the thoracic cage1.protect vital organs, 2. resist negative internal pressure from recoil of lungs 3.attachment and support for upper body weight 4. attachment for muscles
Joints of the thoracic skeletoncostovertebral, costotransverse, sternocostal, costochondral, intercondral, xiphisternal
What is the name of fascia covering the organs of the abdominal regionperitoneum
Muscular girdle is comprised of which musclesexternal oblique, internal oblique, transversus abdominis (and multifidus)
Functions of the anterolateral abdominal wall1. strong, expanding support 2. support and protect organs 3.compress to maintain pressure (opposing diaphragm) 4.move trunk and maintain posture
where in the diaphragm does the esophageal hiatus go throughright crus of lumbar part
what causes the "hiccup" soundfast epiglottis closure over trachea (from irritated phrenic n.)
what is it called when stomach presses through esophageal hiatushiatal hernia
if client feels pain when extending leg while lying on side, what could be wrongkidneys, ureters, cecum, appendix, colon, pancreas
client has "crushing sub-sternal/ left chest pain that won't go away"heart attack
what is the small lobe on left lung calledlingula
what is acute respiratory distress and what might cause itpulmonary edema and hypoxemia (associated with dyspnea, hypoxia, infiltrates seen on chest radiograph); pulmonary embolism
what might be a cause of hemoptysis(spitting up blood) from bronchial/pulmonary hemorrage; bronchitis, lung cancer, pneumonia, pulmonary embolism
what can peritonitis causeascites (excessive fluid in peritoneal cavity) (peritonitis-inflammed peritoneum from bacteria/fungal infection coming from rupture in abdomen)
where do you typically feel pain from diaphragmshoulder or skin over costal margins of anterolateral abdominal wall
What is the floor and roof of suboccipital trianglefloor is AO membrane and posterior arch of atlas, roof is semispinalis capitis
what is the chin calledmental protuberance
muscles that help with inspirationSCM, scalenes, pectoralis minor, serratus anterior
muscles that help with expirationinternal intercostal, transversus throacis, external and internal oblique, rectus abdominis
pregnant women have more hernias throughlinea alba
how to fix a carotid occlusionendarterectomy
which lung is more typically aspiratedright lung
how do kidneys respond to congestive heart failurecause body to retain fluid (not enough nutrients going to tissues)
what is used to treat coronary artery diseasecoronary bypass graft surgery
what is used to widen blocked/narrowed coronary arteriescoronary angioplasty (stent that expands)
too slow heart beat is calledbradycardia
what can cause Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)emphysema, chronic bronchitis, asthma
Common causes of chest paincardiac issues, pulmonary issues, emotional stress, vascular problems, neural (herpes zoster), musculoskeletal, and gastrointestinal (hiatal hernia)
Three types of stroke/ cerebrovascular accidents1. ischemic (blockage causing low blood supply to brain) 2.hemorrhagic (rupture of vessel, blood in brain) 3.transcient ischemic attack (mini stroke, brief lack of O2)
Contraction of 1 SCM, causing head tilt and potentially changed shape of skulltorticollis
Diagnosis for patient unable to adjust to change of blood pressure, causing faintinghave a hypersensitive carotid sinus, using syncope to cope
Fascia dividing, holding, and protecting organs in abdomen and thoracic areapleura (sensitive to pain; innervated by intercostal and phrenic n. in thoracic region)
What might be the diagnosis if doctor hears pleura rubbing together during auscultation of lungspleuritis (inflammation of pleura)
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