Fruits & Veggies

zoeleow5's version from 2015-09-12 00:26

Section 1

Question Answer
VitaminsCarotene and vitamin C is primarily present in fruits and veggies; Betacarotene is present in dark orange fruits and veggies
CarbohydratesProduced during photosynthesis; starch absorbs water and gelatinises when exposed to heat and water; Cellulose provides structure to cell walls; Hemicellulose provides structure; Pectic substances act as 'cement' btw cell walls.
Natural acidsCitric acid - oranges and lemons; Malic acid - apples; Tartaric acid - grapes; Gives the fruit tartness and slows down bacterial spoilage.
EnzymesPlays a role in deterioration reactions in storage; produces unacceptable brown colour in fruits and vegetables; pectinous enzymes softens fruits.
PigmentsCarotenoids - yellow, orange, red; Carotene - yellow-orange (carrots); Lycopene - red-orange (tomatoes); Xanthophylls - light yellow (pineapple).

Section 2

Question Answer
Thermal processingIncludes cooking, blanching, pasteurisation, sterilisation, evaporation, extrusion, and drying; makes fruits and veggies safe and shelf-stable.
CanningFood is heated inside can to kill any dangerous micro-organisms and extend food's shelf life. Some micro-organisms require severe heat treatment, which may affect taste and texture of food, making it less appealing.
Production of Soy MilkSoybeans are soaked first, then grounded, and finally strained.
High pressure processingSubjects food to elevated pressures. Since heat is not required, process impacts less on the vitamin content, flavour and colour of foods; good for juice processing.
FreezingNutrient value of food is retained when frozen.
DehydratingCan reduce amount of vitamin C that fruits retain, but concentrates other nutrients especially fibre in plant foods. If dehydrated food is cooked with water, more nutrients may leach out of food and be lost in cooking water; Also makes food products more energy dense, which may contribute to weight gain.

Section 3

Question Answer
Orange foodscontains carotene; good for heart health and vision; Eg. carrots.
Red foodscontains lycopene; important for fighting prostate cancer and heart disease; Eg. tomatoes.
Green vegetablescontains lutein and zeaxanthin; helps protect against age-related eye disease; Eg. spinach
Blue and Purple foodscontains anthocyanins; helps protect body from cancer; Eg. blueberries
White foodscontains sulforaphane; helps protect against cancer; Eg. cauliflower