Carotene and vitamin C is primarily present in fruits and veggies; Betacarotene is present in dark orange fruits and veggies
Produced during photosynthesis; starch absorbs water and gelatinises when exposed to heat and water; Cellulose provides structure to cell walls; Hemicellulose provides structure; Pectic substances act as 'cement' btw cell walls.
Citric acid - oranges and lemons; Malic acid - apples; Tartaric acid - grapes; Gives the fruit tartness and slows down bacterial spoilage.
Plays a role in deterioration reactions in storage; produces unacceptable brown colour in fruits and vegetables; pectinous enzymes softens fruits.
Includes cooking, blanching, pasteurisation, sterilisation, evaporation, extrusion, and drying; makes fruits and veggies safe and shelf-stable.
Food is heated inside can to kill any dangerous micro-organisms and extend food's shelf life. Some micro-organisms require severe heat treatment, which may affect taste and texture of food, making it less appealing.
Production of Soy Milk
Soybeans are soaked first, then grounded, and finally strained.
High pressure processing
Subjects food to elevated pressures. Since heat is not required, process impacts less on the vitamin content, flavour and colour of foods; good for juice processing.
Nutrient value of food is retained when frozen.
Can reduce amount of vitamin C that fruits retain, but concentrates other nutrients especially fibre in plant foods. If dehydrated food is cooked with water, more nutrients may leach out of food and be lost in cooking water; Also makes food products more energy dense, which may contribute to weight gain.