the ability to hear, identify, and manipulate the individual sounds, phonemes, in spoken words.
What do children need to become aware of before they learn to read?
They must become aware of how the sounds in words work.
the smallest parts of sound in a spoken word that make a difference in the word's meaning. For example, changing the first phoneme in the word hat from /h/ to /p/ changes the word from hat to pat, and so changes the meaning.
What does a letter between slash marks show us?
Shows a phoneme, or sound, that the letter represents, NOT the name of the letter. - example: h represents /h/
How can children show us they have phonemic awareness?
1) recognizing which words in a set of words begins with the same sound - bell, bike, boy all have /b/ in the beginning 2) isolating and saying the first or last sound in a word. - beginning sound of dog is /d/, the ending sound of sit is /t/. 3) Combining or blending the separate sounds in a word to say the word /m/,/a/,/p/, map. 4) Breaking or segmenting a word into its separate sounds - up - /u/, /p/
Phonemic awareness is sometimes also mistaken as the same thing as
Phonics. But it is not the same thing as phonics.
the understanding that there is a predictable relationship between phonemes (the sounds of SPOKEN language), and graphemes (the letters and spellings that represent the sounds in WRITTEN lanaguage.)
Phonemic awareness is a subcategory of
phonological awareness, but is NOT the same thing, and the names can not be used interchangebly.
identifying and manipulating larger parts of spoken language, such as words, syllables, and onsets and rimes, as well as phonemes. Also encompasses other aspects of sound, such as rhyming, alliteration, and intonation.
Children can show us they have phonological awareness by
1) identifying and making oral rhymes 2) identifying and working with syllables in spokes words. - My name has two syllables - An-drew 3) identifying and working with onsets and rimes in spoken syllables, or one-syllable words. "The first part of sip is s-.", "The last part of win is -in." 4) Identifying and working with individual phonemes in spoken words - the first sound in sun is /s/.
About how many phonemes are there in the english language?
Can a phoneme be represented by more than one letter?
Give an example. Yes. /ch/
A grapheme is
The smallest part of of WRITTEN language that represents a phoneme in the spelling of a word. A grapheme may be just one letter, such as b,d,f,p,s or several letters, such as ch, sh, th, -ck, ea, -igh.
A syllable is
a word part that countains a vowel or, in spoken language, a vowel sound. e-vent. news-pa-per. ver-y
Onsets and rimes are
parts of spoken language that are smaller than syllables, but larger than phonemes. An ONSET is the initail consonant(s) sound of a syllable (the onset of bag is b-, the onset of swim is sw-). a RIME is the part of a syllable that contains the vowel and all that follows it (the rime of bag is -ag, of swim, -im)
words that we use in speaking or recognizing in listening
reading vocabulary refers to
words we recognize of use in print
What are the tweo types of vocabulary?
oral and reading
why is vocabulary important?
beginning readers use their oral vocabulary to make sense of the words they see in print - readers must know what most of the words mean before they can understand what they are reading
vocabulary can be developed in two ways
- indirectly - when students engage daily in oral language, listen to adults read to them, and read extensively on their own - directly - when students are explicitly taught both individual words and word learning strategies
text comprehension is important because
comprehension is the reason for reading
text comprehension is
text comprehension can be developed by
teaching comprehension strategies
text comprehension can be taught in three main ways
through explicit instruction, through cooperative learning, by helping readers use strategies flexibly and in combination