Foundations Of Reading

Updated 2007-01-29 17:43

Foundations of Reading

Define phonological awarenessthe awareness that oral language is composed of smaller units, such as spoken words and syllables
Define phonemic awarenessa specific type of phonological awareness involving the ability to distinguish the separate phonemes in a spoken word.
Name some levels of phonological and phonemic awareness skills.1) rhyming 2) segmenting 3) blending 4) deleting 5) substituting
Phonemes are represented byletters and letter pairs
Phonemic Awareness isthe ability to hear, identify, and manipulate the individual sounds, phonemes, in spoken words.
What do children need to become aware of before they learn to read?They must become aware of how the sounds in words work.


Phonemes arethe smallest parts of sound in a spoken word that make a difference in the word's meaning. For example, changing the first phoneme in the word hat from /h/ to /p/ changes the word from hat to pat, and so changes the meaning.
What does a letter between slash marks show us?Shows a phoneme, or sound, that the letter represents, NOT the name of the letter. - example: h represents /h/
How can children show us they have phonemic awareness?1) recognizing which words in a set of words begins with the same sound - bell, bike, boy all have /b/ in the beginning 2) isolating and saying the first or last sound in a word. - beginning sound of dog is /d/, the ending sound of sit is /t/. 3) Combining or blending the separate sounds in a word to say the word /m/,/a/,/p/, map. 4) Breaking or segmenting a word into its separate sounds - up - /u/, /p/
Phonemic awareness is sometimes also mistaken as the same thing asPhonics. But it is not the same thing as phonics.
Phonics isthe understanding that there is a predictable relationship between phonemes (the sounds of SPOKEN language), and graphemes (the letters and spellings that represent the sounds in WRITTEN lanaguage.)
Phonemic awareness is a subcategory ofphonological awareness, but is NOT the same thing, and the names can not be used interchangebly.

Foundations of Reading II

Phonological awareness includesidentifying and manipulating larger parts of spoken language, such as words, syllables, and onsets and rimes, as well as phonemes. Also encompasses other aspects of sound, such as rhyming, alliteration, and intonation.
Children can show us they have phonological awareness by1) identifying and making oral rhymes 2) identifying and working with syllables in spokes words. - My name has two syllables - An-drew 3) identifying and working with onsets and rimes in spoken syllables, or one-syllable words. "The first part of sip is s-.", "The last part of win is -in." 4) Identifying and working with individual phonemes in spoken words - the first sound in sun is /s/.
About how many phonemes are there in the english language?About 41
Can a phoneme be represented by more than one letter?Give an example. Yes. /ch/
A grapheme isThe smallest part of of WRITTEN language that represents a phoneme in the spelling of a word. A grapheme may be just one letter, such as b,d,f,p,s or several letters, such as ch, sh, th, -ck, ea, -igh.
A syllable isa word part that countains a vowel or, in spoken language, a vowel sound. e-vent. news-pa-per. ver-y


Onsets and rimes areparts of spoken language that are smaller than syllables, but larger than phonemes. An ONSET is the initail consonant(s) sound of a syllable (the onset of bag is b-, the onset of swim is sw-). a RIME is the part of a syllable that contains the vowel and all that follows it (the rime of bag is -ag, of swim, -im)
Name some activites that build phonemic awareness1) Phoneme Isolation 2)Phoneme Identity 3)phoneme categorization 4)phoneme blending 5)phoneme segmentation 6)phoneme deletion 7) phoneme addition 8)phoneme substitution
How can phonemic awareness and segmenting words into phenomes help children learn how to spell?children who have phonemic awareness understand that sounds and letters are related in a predicatble way.
Phoneme Manipulation (a phonemic awareness term)when children work with phonemes in words, they are manipulating the phonemes.
Name the types of phoneme manipulationblending phonemes, segmenting phonemes, adding phonemes, deleting phonemes - substituting one phoneme for another to make a new word
Phonemic awareness is most effective when it focuses only on ______ _________ ____ types of phoneme manipulation, rather than __________ or two, rather than several types.

Foundations of Reading III

phonemic awareness should be taught to1) small group 2) individual 3) entire class
why should phonemic awareness be taught to small group/individual/class?small group is more effective - children benefit from listening to their classmates respond and receive feedback from the teacher
Phonics instructionhelps children learn the relationships between the letters of written language and the sounds of spoken language
phonics instruction is important becauseit leads to an understanding of the alphabetic principle - the systematic and predictable relationship between written letters and spoken sounds.
What two factors make phonics instruction most effectivemust be systematic - plan of instruction includes a carefully selected set of letter-sound relationships that are organized into a logical sequence.
What does an effective phonics program provide for children?ample opportunity for the to apply what they are learning about letter and sounds of the reading of words, sentences, and stories.


Question Answer
systematic and explicit phonics instructionsignificantly improves children's word recognition, spelling, and reading comprehension is most effective when it begins in kindergarten or first grade.
Phrase :: Definition
fluency isthe ability to read a text accurately and quickly
fluency is important becauseit fress students to understand what they read
reading fluency can be developed by1. modeling fluent reading 2. having students engage in repeated oral reading
monitoring students progress in reading fluency is useful inevaluating instruction and setting instructional goals can be motivating to students

Foundations of Reading IV

vocabulary refers tothe words we must know to communicate effectively
oral vocabulary refers towords that we use in speaking or recognizing in listening
reading vocabulary refers towords we recognize of use in print
What are the tweo types of vocabulary?oral and reading
why is vocabulary important?beginning readers use their oral vocabulary to make sense of the words they see in print - readers must know what most of the words mean before they can understand what they are reading


Question Answer
vocabulary can be developed in two ways- indirectly - when students engage daily in oral language, listen to adults read to them, and read extensively on their own - directly - when students are explicitly taught both individual words and word learning strategies
text comprehension is important becausecomprehension is the reason for reading
text comprehension ispurposeful
text comprehension can be developed byteaching comprehension strategies
text comprehension can be taught in three main waysthrough explicit instruction, through cooperative learning, by helping readers use strategies flexibly and in combination

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