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Forensic Psychology Exam#1 Review

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shelbylynn's version from 2015-09-30 00:14

Section

Question Answer
Father of EPHugo Munsterberg
Forensic psychologyA field of psychology that deals with all aspects of human behavior as it relates to the law or legal system
Clinical forensic psychologistsPsychologists who are broadly concerned with the assessment and treatment of mental health issues as they pertain to the law or legal system , clinical forensic psychologist does, provides expert testimony, personnel selection
Forensic psychiatryA field of medicine that deals with all aspects of human behavior as it relates to the law or legal system
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Question Answer
Psychology and the lawthe use of psychology to examine the operation of the legal system
Psychology in the lawThe use of psychology in the legal system as that system operates
Psychology of the lawThe use of psychology to examine the law itself
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Sutherland’s (1939) differential association theorySutherland proposed that criminal behavior is learned through social interactions in which people are exposed to values that are favorable to violations of the law. More specifically, Sutherland maintained that a person is likely to become a criminal when he or she learns more values (i.e., attitudes) that are favorable to violations of the law than values that are unfavorable to it.
Brown vs. Board of education is important because1st to use and set the standard that psychologists can be expert witnesses
Expert witnessA witness who provides the court with information (often an opinion on a particular matter) that assists the court in understanding an issue of relevance to a case
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General acceptance testA standard for accepting expert testimony, which states that expert testimony will be admissible in court if the basis of the testimony is generally accepted within the relevant scientific community (Frye vs. US)
Daubert criteriaA standard for accepting expert testimony, which states that scientific evidence is valid if the research upon which it is based has been peer reviewed, is testable, has a recognized rate of error, and adheres to professional standard
Dauber criteria success scientific evidance is valid if1. The research has been peer reviewed. 2. The research is testable (i.e., falsifiable through experimentation). 3. The research has a recognized rate of error. 4. The research adheres to professional standards.
Alfred Binetconducted numerous studies in which he showed that the testimony provided by children was highly susceptible to suggestive questioning techniques.
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Police selection proceduresA set of procedures used by the police to either screen out undesirable candidates or select in desireble candidates.
Job analysisan interview used by the police to determine the extent to which an applicant possesses the knowledge, skills, and abilities deemed important for the job
Cognitive ability testsmeasuring verbal, mathematical,memory, and reasoning abilities
Inwald Personality InventoryAn assessment instrument used to identify police applicants who are suitable for police work by measuring their personality attributes and behavior patterns
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Question Answer
Assessment centerA facility in which the behavior of police applicants can be observed in a number of situations by multiple observers
Situational testA simulation of a real- world policing task
Police discretionA policing task that involves discriminating between circumstances that require absolute adherence to the law and circumstances where a degree of latitude is justified
Use-of-force continuumA model that is supposed to guide police officer decision making in use-of-force situations by providing the officer with some guidance as to what level of force is appropriate given the suspect’s behavior and other environmental conditions
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Common police responses to youth crimeformal arrests, police cautions, community refferals, and family conferences.
police officers can only use forcewhen it is necessary to suppress a situation, and only to the extent that is necessary to accomplish this goal. When a police officer uses force for any other purpose, or in excess of what is needed, that officer has made inappropriate use of his or her discretionary power. When this happens, the result can be deadly. It can also be very costly for the police, who may have to deal with poten- tial lawsuits.
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Question Answer
organizational stressorsIn policing, stressors relating to the job itself (lack of career development, excessive paperwork)
Occupational stressorsIn policing, stressors relating to organizational issues (irregular work schedule, human suffering)
Criminal Justice StressorsIneeffectiveness of the corrections system, unfavorable court dessions
Public StressorsDistorted press accounts, ineffectiveness of referral agencies.
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Police interrogationA process whereby the police question a suspect for the purpose of obtaining a confession
Reid modelA nine-step model of interrogation sometimes used in North America to extract confessions from suspects
REID stepsThe first stage is to gather evidence related to the crime and to interview witnesses and victims. The second stage is to conduct a nonaccusatorial interview of the suspect. The third stage is to conduct an accusatorial interrogation of the suspect (if he or she is perceived to be guilty)
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Minimization techniquesSoft-sell tactics used by police interrogators that are designed to lull the suspect into a false sense of security
Maximization techniquesScare tactics used by police interrogators that are designed to intimidate a suspect believed to be guilty
Miranda rightswhich include a right to remain silent and the right to consult with an attorney
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Question Answer
False confessionA confession that is either intentionally fabricated or is not based on actual knowledge of the facts that form its content
Retracted confessionA confession that the confessor later declares to be false
Disputed confessionA confession that is later disputed at trial
Voluntary false confessionA false confession that is provided without any elicitation from the police
Coerced-compliant false confessionA confession that results from a desire to escape a coercive interrogation environment or gain a benefit promised by the police
Coerced-internalized false confessionA confession that results from suggestive interrogation techniques, whereby the confessor actually comes to believe he or she committed the crime
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criminal profilingA technique for identifying the background characteristics of an offender based on an analysis of the crimes he or she has committed
Deductive criminal profilingbackground characteristics of an unknown offender based on evidence left at the crime scenes by that particular offender
Inductive criminal profilingbackground characteristics of an unknown offender based on what we know about other solved cases
Organized– disorganized modelA profiling model used by the FBI that assumes the crime scenes and backgrounds of serial offenders can be categorized as organized or disorganized
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PolygraphA device for recording an individuals autonomic nervous system reponses
Polygraph disclosure testspolygraph tests that are used to uncover information about an offender's past behaviors
Comparison Question TestType of polygraph test that includes irrelevant questions that are unrelated to the crime, relevant questions concerning the crime braing investigates and comparison questions concerning the person's honesty and past history prior to the event being investigated
Concealed InformationTestType of polygraph test designed to determined if the persone knows details about a crime
Ground TruthAs applied to polygraph research the knowledge of whether the person is actually guilty or innocent
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CountermeasuresAs applied to polygraph research techniques used to try to conceal guilt
Event related brain potentialsbraing activity measures by placing electrodes on the scalp and by recoding electrical patterns related to presentation of a stimulus
Truth-biasThe tendency of people to judge more messaged as truthful than deceptive
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Question Answer
malingeringintentionally faking psychologica or physical symptoms for some type of external gain
Factitious disordera disorder in which the person's physical and psychological symptoms are intentionally produced and are adopted to assume the role of a sick person
Munchausen syndromea rare factitious disorder in which as person intentionally produces a physical complaint and constantly seeks physician consultations, hospitalization and even surgery to treat the nonexistant illness
somatoform disordersa disorder in which physical symptoms suggests and physical illness but have no known underlying physiological cause and the symtoms are not intentionally produced
malingeringintentionally faking psychologica or physical symptoms for some type of external gain
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