Food Animal- Diseases of the Abomasum 1

drraythe's version from 2016-04-29 15:02


Question Answer
what IS the abomasum?the 4th stomach, glandular stomach, Analogous to a monogastric’s stomach
where is the NORMAL location of the abomasum?Normally present adjacent to abdominal floor--> right of the xiphoid, cranial abdomen
abomasum is mostly on the _________ sideright
on which side can the abomasum become a volvulus?On the right, it can rotate on its axis and become a volvulus
what are the attachments of the abomasum?Firmly attached anteriorly by omasum, Loosely suspended by greater and lesser omenta
what can happen if gas accumulates in the abomasum?can move L or R

Displaced abomasum/ volvulus

Question Answer
is LDA or RDA more commonLDA (90%)
**in WHO and at what time is LDA most common?Most common in lactating dairy cattle, Usually occurs first 6 weeks post-partum
is LDA a sx ER?Not a surgical emergency, but should be corrected as soon as possible
explain how the abomasum moves in a LDA, and what is the main problem that occurs from this movement?Greater curvature of the abomasum passes under the rumen and becomes trapped between the rumen and the left abdominal wall--> partial pyloric obstruction
which has a specific time at which it occurs- RDA or LDA?LDA (lactating dairy cattle 6wk post partum)
When does RDA occur?Can occur at any time during production cycle
where does the abomasum go in a RDA? what does it lead to?The abomasum is displaced to the right between the liver and the right abdominal wall. Leads to: Partial pyloric obstruction, Always associated with some degree of torsion of the pylorus, Can become an abomasal volvulus, which is life threatening
Although abomasal volvulus is uncommon, it is severe because.. (and where does the abomasum end up?)Twisting of abomasum on mesenteric axis can disrupt blood supply of the abomasum. Abomasum is trapped between liver and body wall
In what two situations can a Right sided volvulus occur?may follow RDA or correction by rolling of an LDA
in which direction does a abomasal volvulus usually occur?Rotation may occur in either direction, but most commonly is counterclockwise (when viewed from behind), so Pylorus ends up near reticulum
what other body parts are usually involved in a volvulus?Omasum and reticulum usually involved
pictures to compare the normal, to a clockwise and counterclockwise volvulus (which is more common again?)(counterclockwise when viewed from behind is most common) NORMAL: CLOCKWISE: COUNTERCLOCKWISE: (MSOT COMMON)
how serious is a abomasal volvulus?ER. Cow can become systemically ill: dehydration--> shock--> death
why might you think there is vagal indigestion with a volvulus? which type of vagal indegestion?there can be vagal indegestion with volvulus bc Inflammation from volvulus can damage the vagus nerve. Leads to vagal indigestion type III (Failure of Abomasal Transport)
how often do small rumis/ camelids get a displaced abomasum?rarely, never (respectively)
Any bovine patient that is ___ should be evaluated for a displaced abomasum “off feed”
5 factors you should consider which can predispose a cow to DA?Breed, Age of cow, parturition, concurrent dz, nutrition
Why are dairy breeds more predisposed to DA?Due to management practices
which specific breed has the highest chance of the DA?Guernsey cattle
which age is more at risk for DA?older (Cows generally produce more milk in later lactations)
how can a LDA occur DURING pregnancy? how common is this?Pregnant uterus may displace the rumen dorsally and allow LDA to occur (uncommon)
how can a DA occur AFTER pregnancy? how common is this?After calving, there is a large void where the uterus was, allowing for more movement of the abomasum (common)
what are "fresh cows" and how does this relate to DA?fresh cows are cows in early lactation, and DA is most commonly found in early lactation
what are some possible concurrent fresh cow diseases, aside from DA?ketosis, mastitis, metritis, hypocalcemia
concurrent dz: explain how ketosis happens/how it can contribute to DA?Results from negative energy balance--> Severe ketosis contributes to inappetance--> Decreased rumen fill may lead to shifting internal organs
concurrent dz: explan how hepatic lipidosis can contribute to DA?hepatic lipidosis decreases appetite--> Decreased rumen fill may lead to shifting internal organs
concurrent dz: how can metritis/mastitis relate to DA?Endotoxemia from both diseases can affect rumen motility and appetite (Decreased rumen fill may lead to shifting internal organs)
concurrent dzs: explain how hypocalcemia can contribute to DA?Low serum calcium leads to decreased abomasal motility.... Cows that are hypocalcemic at parturition have a 4.8 times greater risk of developing LDA
pathophys--> nutrition: explain which diet predisposes to DA, and WHYHigh concentrate/low forage diets lead to inc risk because Low particle size leads to increased VFA in abomasum. If concentrate levels are high enough, excess can flow from rumen into abomasum--> Continued fermentation in abomasum. This is where the prob is, because there is a Linear relationship between the amount of gas produced in the abomasum and the amount of concentrate fed, and the more gas in the abomasum, the more mobile it is
what diets produce the most gas?high concentrate diets!
the unifying theme of all these concurrent or contributing dzs is that _________ is the 1* problemABOMASAL ATONY
how do VFAs contribute to DA?More VFAs --> abomasal atony and accumulation of gas within abomasum
how does short fiber length contribute to DA?Decreased fiber length --> decreased mechanical stimulaTIon for rumen contracTIons
what is this a pic of? LDA (look at rumen)
what is TPR like in LDA and RDA?NORMAL!!! unless concurrent dz
what are clinical signs you might see with DA?Decreased appeTIte (esp for grain and silage), Decreased milk production, NORMAL TPR, feces might be loose. Change in abdominal contour might occur, rumen motility dec to absent
what is "sprung rib"?With LDA, can see a ‘bulge’ at the cranial aspect of the left paralumbar fossa (farmers call this sprung rib)
what will Auscultation and percussion be like with a DA?Auscultation and percussion over rib case will reveal a pinging sound
if you ascult and percuss a suspected DA, and there is no ping, what do you think?Absence of ping does not rule out LDA! (~15% dont ping)
where would you try to ping for a LDA? (pic)
what are 4 OTHER causes of left sided pings you must keep in mind for ddx?Left displaced abomasum, Rumen ‘gas cap’, Free gas in the abdomen, Free gas in the uterus
3 reasons there might be free gas in the abd, leading to a L sided ping that isnt LDA?Diffuse/localized peritonitis, Penetrating wound, Post-laparotomy
where would you hear a ping if there was a rumen gas cap? (pic)
(pic) compare where you were hear a gas cap ping to a LDA ping
there are 6 reasons you would encounter a right sided ping- what are they, and WHERE on the right side would you hear them(A) Right displaced abomasum/abomasal volvulus (B) Gas in spiral colon, small intestines (C) Cecal dilatation or volvulus (D) Gas in uterus (E) Gas in rectum (F) Free gas in the abdomen (pneumoperitoneum)
RDA/Abomasal Volvulus are roughly in the same area when you ping them. How can you tell them apart?RDA has a smaller ping area, AV will be a bigger area and AV will be super painful and they will probably be tachycardic, unlike the RDA.
whats this? cecum gas ping
whats this? gas in spiral colon/sm int
whats this? gas in rectum
whats this? gas in uterus
what is gas in the uterus called?physometra
is RDA or LDA more easily palpated rectally?LDA can almost never be palpated, RDA can rarely be palpated
what will you find on a rectal exam of a possible DA case?you will feed decreased rumen fill-- LDA is almost NEVER palpated, RDA is RARELY palpated, and AV might be palpable
what are the clinical signs of an abomasal volvulus?Marked dehydration, severe tachycardia (>100bpm), no rumen motility, complete anorexia, and a sharp dec in milk production
if a cow presents with severe tachycardia (what is severe tachy considered?) and is dehydrated with poor rumen motility, which abomasal disorder do you think you are dealing with?(severe tachy is >100bpm) this is a ABOMASAL VOLVULUS!! the LDA and RDA wont be painful and wont be as severe
RDA vs AV: heart rate?RDA: normal. AV: >100
RDA vs AV: DehydrationRDA: mild-moderate. AV: severe
RDA vs AV: rumen motilityRDA: dec to absent. AV: absent
RDA vs AV: fecesRDA: present, might be loos. AV: scant and dark
RDA vs AV: ping sizeRDA: 10-25cm. AV: >20-40cm
how is CBC affected by DA?Normal unless changes caused by concurrent disease
how are Packed Cell Volume / Total Solids affected by DA?Normal unless cow is, PCV/TS will be increased with AV
how will Serum Biochemistry Panel be affected by DA/AV?Hypochloremia+Metabolic Alkalosis (More profound with AV or prolonged DA), Hypokalemia, Hyperlactatemia, Hypocalcemia? Check for ketosis!!
what does she mean by "internal vomiting"?they arent vomiting out their mouth, but their chem is as if they are vomiting a lot bc the stomach content/ions are sequestered there and not being distributed in the body correctly- hypochloremia, metabolic alkalosis, hypokalemia