Food Ani. Med- Swine- Swine Industry

wilsbach's version from 2016-03-09 21:48


Question Answer
what is a gilt? Female pig from birth until she has her 1st litter of pigs
what is a Sow?Female pig after she has her 1 st litter
what is a boar? Male > 6 moa, intended for breeding
what is a BarrowMale pig castrated prior to puberty
what is a Stag?Boar that is castrated
what is Farrowing?Production of a litter of pigs
what is Parity?Number of litters the sow has carried
what is Fostering?Moving suckling pigs to a different sow
what is a Teaser?Intact or vasectomized boar used for heat detection


Question Answer
how common is pork as a consumed meat?#1 consumed meat in the world!!
what is a "turn" and how many do you want in a year?A turn as in turn over of the stock of pigs. From birth/nursery to going to market. 1 turn should be 6-6.5mo... you will want ideally 2.3-3 turns in a year
*how long is gestation?115 days (3mo 3weeks 3days)
how long is lactation phase?14-21 days (2-3wk) (another slide he said 3wk)
what are the 4 locations a pig is in throughout it's life?sow farms-->nursery farms--> finisher farms-->market
how long is a pig in the nursery?Nursery Phase= 6 – 8 wks
how long is a pig at a finisher farm?Finisher Phase= 16 – 18 wks
what age do we wean piglets at?2-3wk
what is average market weight? 250 – 270 lbs (He said if he were gonna ask, avg 250 lbs for market weight)
what is a nursery pig/weaner?Pig b/t weaning and 8 weeks or 40 – 60 lbs
what is a "grower" pig? Pig that is b/t weaning and sale or transfer to the breeding herd (this term encompasses the nursery pigs and the finisher pigs)
what is a finisher pig? Grower pigs that are > 120 – 150 lbs (55 -70 kgs) [remember market weight is 220 – 270 lbs (he said 250 in the other slide but whatever) He said if he were gonna ask, avg 250 lbs for market weight]
when do pigs reach puberty?6-8mo
how long is their estrous cycle?21d
*what maintains pregnancy in the sow?Corpus luteum-dependent for entire gestation
what is the pregnant uterus like?Sow uterus is bicornuate, with long uterine horns (~ 1 meter)
on average how many litters does a sow have in a year?2.5
what are 4 benefits to individual sow housing?(1) Meet individual nutritional needs of the every sow (2) Add body condition to sows that have become thin during lactation. (3) Reduced aggression between animals after weaning typically seen in a pen setting. (4) Access to fresh feed and ad lib water ( a lot of this is because you can have individual auto feeders which give them what they need when they need it)
what is the downside to grouped sow housing?They can fight each other! (he noted in class that they initially fight and then usually sort it out)
average number of piglets in a litter?BORN: 10-11... WEANED: 9 (~9.7% mortality rate of piglets)
before pregnant sows and gilts can enter the farrowing house, what must happen?must be washed prior to entering farrowing house
what are the benefits of the farrowing crate?reduced crushing of piglets! They also allow optimum temperature for the piglets an the sows. (heat lamp farther from mom but where piglets can get at it) (he noted in class they can still stand up, sit down, and roll over).
explain how farrowing facilities are an "all in all out" system, and why this is desireable sows/gilts brought into farrowing unit as a group--> all pigs and litters removed at the same time. Since they are all gone, the entire facility can be emptied and disinfected. This limits potential for dz outbreaks!!
at what ages are piglets in a nursery?from weaning to ~10weeks of age (leave apprx 40-60lbs)
what is happening at the nursery to the piglets?Place for them to transition from milk to a grain based diet.
at what production phase do maternal Abs start to wane?nursery stage- so dz control is critical in nursery setting.
most common diet in a grower/finisher setting?corn-soybean meal
how old are the pigs when they reach a slaughter weight of ~250 lbs?5-6mo
explain grow to finish versus wean to finish setups(1) GtF: From weaning piglets enter nursery and THEN enter grow and finish facilities. (enter ~50lbs and exit at market weight of 250). WtF: Once weaned, the nursery is skipped and the piglets are sent straight to the grow to finish stage.
what are the pros and cons of a wean to finish setup?PRO: LESS STRESS bc moving less places. CONS: you will need different/extra facility things like heat/feeders/gating materials and drinkers (depends on how big they are what they need)
which area of production has the highest death losses?FARROWING UNIT! (dystocia, stillborn, laid on, genetic whatever)
what is the trend we are seeing with the industry?more hogs with less farms (production cost dec with inc number of pigs-- so many farms are growing pigs for other ppl)
what is vertical integration?when the company or farmer owns all of the stages for the product: feed, facilities, pigs, personnel, transport, processing, marketing
explain what he means by the pork market is cyclical? Increased prices --> More sows bred --> Increased supply --> Prices decrease --> Fewer sows bred (Seasonal increases occur during the summer months)
why do we irradiate pork?safety against trichinella
what is a Pork Quality Assurance Program? What are it's goals? Voluntary program to critique producer management practices. The PQA Plus program achieves its goals through: (1) Producer training by a certified PQA Plus advisor resulting in PQA Plus certification (2) An objective assessment of on-farm animal well-being (3) A PQA Plus survey designed to evaluate the implementation of PQA Plus in the industry..... Based on 10 Good Production Practices

****** PIG ID

Question Answer
**know pig ID!!! what are the 2 types of ID?(1) Temporary= Ear tags or paint markers. (2) Permanent= Tattoo &/or Ear notches
**why do I as a vet need to care about pig ID so much?Need to write this on all their health papers!!
examples of temporary pig ID markers?paint, ear tags (metal FDA ear tag is perm tho)
PRACTICE: what is the right ear (the pigs right ear) ID number? 2- so this is their second litter. Bc 2 notches in the one spot.
PRACTICE: what is the left ear (the pigs left ear) ID number? 3+9= 12. So this is the ID number.
once you know what the number on each ear means, when you put it all together, what does it mean? 2 on right (2 litters), 12 on left, so written as 2-12 (2 litters, pig #12)
the pigs right ear notches refers many litters
the pigs left ear notches refers to..ID number