Food Ani. Med- Swine- Swine Diarrhea 2

wilsbach's version from 2016-03-12 22:14

Clostridial diarrhea

Question Answer
Enterotoxemia associated with which type of clositridium, and which strain of that?C. perfringens Type c (C P C for ET)
Neonatal diarrhea is also associated with which type of clositridium, and which strain of that?C. perfringens type A. (CPA for neonate-ay)
C. perfringens type C is associated with what kinda diarrhea?enterotoxemic
C. perfringens type A is associated with what kinda diarrhea?neonatal diarrhea
aside from C.perfringens Type A and C, what other species of clostridium can cause diarrhea?Clostridium difficile infection of the cecum & colon produces diarrhea with variable morbidity and mortality.
C. perfringens type C---> who is affected? ages?Acute disease occurs in piglets less than one week old, Chronic cases are noted in pigs up to several weeks old. Type C clostridial enteritis also occurs in young lambs, calves, foals, and poultry. (Less often in adult sheep, cattle, and goats)
Clostridium perfringens: what kinda etiological agent is this? how do they differentiate the types?Large, anaerobic, Gram positive bacillus. It has both Vegetative & sporulated forms. They are Distinguished (into toxigenic types A, B, C, D, and E) by major toxins they produce: alpha, beta, epsilon, or iota. ALL TYPES produce alpha toxin.
which type of clostridium perfringens causes the severe NECROTIZING toxin (which toxin?)TYPE C produces several toxins including the necrotizing BETA toxin
what is alpha toxin also called, and what does it do? lecithinase, Causes lysis of cell membranes
what is beta toxin also called, and what does it do?Necrotizing toxin. Causes Rapid cell death --> Invasion of intestinal wall
what destroys beta toxin in the body, and how does clostridium combat this?Beta toxin is broken down by trypsin, BUT Colostrum contains trypsin inhibitors
Clostridium perfringens type A produces which type of toxin? is it more mild or severe compared to Type C?A produces alpha toxin (Organisms that are pathogenic for swine also produce beta-2 toxin) but type A produces a much milder enteric insult than type C
Virulent strains of C. diff produce which two types of toxins? produce an enterotoxin (TcdA) and a cytotoxin (TcdB) [Associated with both systemic illness in pigs & localized typhlocolitis with mesocolonic edema.]
what causes the death of the pigs with clostridial diarrhea?Death due to mucosal necrosis & the systemic effect of toxins.
explain the pathogenesis of clostridial diarrhea (type C)C. perfringens type C organisms are ingested by piglets within hours of birth--> SI prolif--> attach to epithelial cells--> produce Beta-toxin--> necrosis and desquamation--> gas production. (Death due to mucosal necrosis & the systemic effect of toxins)
how does C. perfringens location of infection differ from C. difficile?P= small int. D= cecum and colon
how might C. perfringens diarrhea appear?+/- bloody diarrhea, +/- Yellow or gray, mucoid diarrhea.
how quickly does C. perfringens work?Quick onset with death in 4-6 hours (Sick piglets quickly become weak, prostrate & then moribund.)
in Uncomplicated type A infections of both neonatal & weaned pigs the diarrhea looks like _________, the morbidity/mortality is _________Diarrhea is creamy, pasty, or yellow and foamy. Morbidity is high but mortality is generally low, but mortality can be high in complicated infections
*IF you want to diagnose a C. perfringens type C infection ,when do you need to take samples? Samples should be taken within 1 hour of death
which clostridial diarrhea usually results in bloody diarrhea?type C (enterotoxemic, aka necrotic toxins)
how can you try to differentiate type A and C in the lab?PCR
is there a vx for clostridium diarrhea?yes
how/who do you admin clostridium vx to?Vaccinating dams twice with bacterin-toxoid. First dose @ 5-6 weeks & a second dose 2-3 weeks prior to farrowing. Booster a few weeks prior to subsequent farrowing's
what are two things you can give to the PIGLETS (since you vx moms) to help with clostridial diarrhea?(1) Type C immune antiserum (antitoxin) administered parenterally within 2 hours of birth (provides immediate passive immunity for 2-3wk) (2) Metaphylaxis with antibiotics effective against clostridia may be administered for a few days after birth & may provide some protection.
How can you tell if diarrhea is viral or bacterial (explain poo pHs)(1) viral= osmotic diarrhea due to villous atrophy= acidic pH of feces. (2) Bacterial= secretory diarrhea= alkaline pH
If you want to use the feces to determine pH of the diarrhea to guess if it is a bacterial or viral cause, what must you keep in mind?feces must be fresh!


Question Answer
what type of diarrhea does coccidiosis cause? WHO is most affected? Inflammatory, malabsorptive diarrhea in suckling & recently weaned pigs. Most common in pigs 1-3 weeks of age. (Or Older pigs when previously unexposed pigs are moved into a highly contaminated environment.)
most common type of coccidia to cause problems in pigs?Most common cause is Isospora suis, occasionally other Eimeria spp.
explain the host life cycle of coccidia(pigs= isospora suis) Sporogeny --> Excystation --> Endogenous development in intestinal epithelium of SI
which parts of the GI are most affected by coccidia? Mainly in the jejunum & ileum (Less commonly in Duodenum, Cecum, and Colon)
which part of the vili are affected by coccidia?Development usually occurs in the cells on distal portions of intestinal villi (Villus Tips). However, Severe infections can lead to colonization of cryptal epithelium
explain the pathogenesis of how isospora suis leads to diarrheaDevelopment of coccidia in enterocytes --> Desquamation of enterocytes especially the villus tips -> Fluid loss and absorptive failure --> Diarrhea
severity of lesions depends many oocytes ingested. Also, 2 o Bacterial infection may contribute to overall severity of the lesions.
does villous epithelium regenerate more quickly or slowly in neonates?Regeneration of villous epithelium occurs more slowly in neonates. THIS IS WHY neonates more severely affected.
why are neonates more severely affected than adults?bc they regen their villous epithelium more slowly
what is the diarrhea from this like?Yellow to clear, pasty to watery diarrhea. Producers report neonatal diarrhea that resembles colibacillosis but fails to respond to antibiotic therapy
clinical signs of coccidial diarrhea?Yellow to clear, pasty to watery diarrhea which is unresponsive to abx, along with Dehydration, Rough hair coat, and failure to thrive
Clinical disease within a litter can appear in two waves-- what are these 2 waves liek?(1) 1 st represents infection with subsequent contamination of the environment by a few affected pigs (2) 2 nd wave appears four - eight days later where the rest of the litter becomes infected. Piglets usually continue to nurse.
is there fecal blood in porcine coccidiosis?no. (so far only def blood one is clostridium perfringens type C)
how do you dx coccidia histologically?Paired type-1 merozoites are considered diagnostic for I. suis
how effective is fecal exam for coccidia? When should you take a fecal sample? what are you looking for?Diagnosis by fecal examinations is less sensitive. Fecal ID is best attempted on piglets that have been sick two to three days (This allows oocysts time to develop). Looking for OOCYTES
which disinfectants are useful with isospora suis?Strong bleach or ammonium compounds can be used for disinfection after thorough cleaning.
what might you have to do to your building/equipment to break the cycle of coccidiosis?Sealing all surfaces with paint or a water seal may be required to break the cycle of infection.
how do you tx coccidia?There is no proven, widely accepted anticoccidial. (Routine treatment of all piglets with toltrazuril?)

Summary for neonates

Question Answer
What are the things which cause secretory diarrhea? (1)Enterotoxigenic E. coli
what are the things which cause malabsorptive diarrhea? (3)Rotavirus, TGE (coronavirus), mild coccidiosis
what are the things which cause inflammatory diarrhea? (2)severe coccidiosis, clostridial enteritis
ETEC causes which diarrhea?secretory
rota causes which type of diarrhea?malabsorptive
TGE (coronavirus) causes which type of diarrhea? malabsorptive
MILD coccidiosis causes which type of diarrhea? malabsorptive
SEVERE coccidiosis causes which type of diarrhea?inflammatory
clostridial species causes which type of diarrhea?inflammatory
what are "nutritional scours"?White scours in 14-21 day old pigs that are healthy and doing well.
which etiological agent causes diarrhea in >1week old piglets?basically everything that causes it in <1wk old piglets, PLUS coccidiosis



Question Answer
salmonella is a dz which usually is manifested in what 2 ways?(1) septicemia (2) enterocolitis.
(said in class) so piggie comes in with diarrhea, cough, and purple extremities. what is your top ddx?salmonella!!
what is a huge CS hint to if a pig is septicemic?PURPLE EARS bc vascular supply in extremities is compromised (cyanotic extremities)
*how can humans get salmonella from swine? **ZOONOTICAsymptomatic swine can serve as a source of infection to humans via contamination of pork.
which ages are susceptible to salmonella, which is MOST susceptible?All age groups are susceptible, disease usually occurs in weaned & growing/finishing pigs
Most outbreaks are caused by which two serotypes of salmonella?Salmonella choleraesuis or Salmonella typhimurium.
what kinda bact are salmonella?small, hardy, Gram-negative bacilli.
what kinda toxins does salmonella have?All contain endotoxin (LPS) & are capable of elaborating a variety of other toxins.
why dont neonates tend to get salm?Lactogenic (Colostral) immunity is usually protective
how does salm usually enter the body? What is the pathogenesis which usually leads to septicemia? (which salmonella for the septicemic version?)Ingestion or inhalation of S. choleraesuis--> invade tonsil &/or intestinal mucosa --> Regional lymph nodes & septicemia.
how does salmonella get around the body? ( ate it and it was in the small int, how the heck did it end up in your brain?) Can be phagocytized & survive within macrophages & neutrophils--> Allows for transport other sites where they localize & cause lesions. Sites include lungs, liver, brain, meninges, joints & lymph nodes
mucosal damage from salmonella leads to what two problems?necrosis and vasculitis
how does salm cause diarrhea? (2 ways)(1) Diarrhea is attributed to tissue fluids leaking from damaged mucosa along with compromise of mucosal absorption (2) Enterotoxin similar to that produced by enterotoxigenic E. coli --> hypersecretion.
what might you find in the diarrhea which can hint towards salmonella?intestinal casts
what might you see on necropsy which can hint towards salmonella?small intestine peyer's patches ulcers (button ulcers)
Septicemic Salmonellosis is caused by which type of salm?S. choleraesuis
what is morbidity and mortality like for S. choleraesuis?Morbidity usually is low to moderate but mortality is high.
what kinda temp is gonna make you think salm?Temperatures up to 107° F (41.6° C)
what are the clinical signs of S. choleraesuis?THIS IS THE SEPTICEMIC TYPE. so, Acute death loss in a group of apparently thrifty pigs. Inappetence, depression, huddling, and weakness. HIGH TEMPS (up to 107) Red to purple discoloration of skin of the extremities (cyanosis), and Initially no diarrhea (Diarrhea begins after a few days of illness)
Enterocolitic Form of salmonellosis is cause by what kinda salm? S. typhimurium, less commonly S. choleraesuis
S. typhimurium causes which kinda salm?enterocolitic
enterocolitic salm affects which age usually? What are the CSs? Typically involves pigs from weaning to about 180 pounds. Initial signs include moderate anorexia & diarrhea. Intermittent watery to yellow diarrhea. Moderately febrile initially that regresses as diarrhea continues, progressing to Diarrhea containing Mucus, Fibrin, & Blood (Blood is not a prominent feature but occurs over time)
what is morbidity and mortality like for S. Typhimurium?High morbidity, Moderate mortality. (remember S. choleraesuis is low morbidity but high mortality)
*which organ enlargement is pretty distinctly a sign of salmonella?SPLEEN SALM
6 major lesions you will see with SEPTICEMIC salmonella?(!) Red to purplish discoloration of the extremities ***PURPLE EARS (2) *Spleen & liver enlargement. +/- small, white to yellow foci of liver necrosis. (3) Petechial hemorrhages in skin, larynx, lungs, heart, bladder & kidneys. (4) Pulmonary congestion & edema (5) Patchy consolidation of brain or meninges. (6) Swollen joints
5 major lesions you will see with ENTEROCOLITIC salm?(1) Large intestine & the lower small intestine are heavy, edematous with thick walls (2) +/- excessive peritoneal fluid with strands of fibrin. (3) Enlarged ileocolic & mesenteric lymph nodes (4) Marked enterocolitis with focal to diffuse areas of mucosal necrosis & fibrinonecrotic exudates (Found in small intestine, cecum, colon and/or rectum., "button ulcers" of the colon ) (5) Rectal stricture with accompanying megacolon
uh why would salm cause megacolon?in the eterocolitic (S. typhimurium) salm, you can get RECTAL strictures which causes 2* megacolon
Clinical signs & gross lesions can often lead you to a dx of salmonella, but how do you lab-confirm? (wont ask about dx he said)Diagnosis should be confirmed by laboratory culture & identification of Salmonella.
if you want to culture for salmonella, where should you be taking samples from? (wont ask about dx he said)Culture multiple organs including liver, spleen, lung, mesenteric lymph nodes and colon.
you can try to Eradicate or exclude carriers of salm, such as...rodents, birds, pets, wildlife
the most important aspect of salmonella control is?GOOD ANIMAL HUSBANDRY
which type of antimicrobials are preferred for septicemic salmonella?Systemically absorbed or injectable antimicrobials are preferred ( Culture & sensitivity is highly recommended)
exs of antimicrobials used for prevention/tx of salmonella? Carbadox, gentamicin, neomycin, tiamulin, ceftiofur, among others
does antimicrobial tx lead to carrier states in swine?this isnt proven