Food Ani Med- Swine- PE of the pig 2

wilsbach's version from 2016-03-10 03:53

Pot bellied pigs

Question Answer
when do you castrate a PBP (age)2-4mo
when do you spay a PBP (age)same as castration (2-4mo) or older
when do you do foot and tusk trims on PBPs?as needed
what method do you use for castrating a PBP?= start and approach/incisions?need GENERAL ANESTHESIA (he said he very much prefers iso) and you will make 2 incisions on ventrum of scrotum.
what method do you use for castrating a PBP?= once the testicles have been exposed with your approach, explain the removal and closureTransfix ligate cords: 3-0 gut, then crush and cut or emasculate (transfixing and a circumferential below that). Close inguinal ring canal to Chord!! (prevents evisceration) with Single suture of 0 or 2-0 gut. Leave incisions open to drain!!!
what is closure like for castration of PBP, and why?leave incisions open so they can drain! (if they are huge incisions you can sew the edges in a bit tho) (you DO WANNA close the inguinal canal tho)
what should you do for aftercare / instructions to owner after castration?ISOLATE!!! draining wounds can attract dogs and other pigs. also warn owners its gonna drain (might not want pig on their couch lol)
will castrating stop tusk growth?slow but not stop it
how long does it take a PBP to heal from castration?2-3wk
what approach for spaying PBP? procedure?ventral midline or flank. Ligate pedicles, remove ovaries, Can leave uterus in or remove it, whichever preferred. Older sows, those who have had litters have a very vascular broad ligament!
how do you know there might be post-op ileus from a spay, and what do you do?see vomiting... fluid diet for 3 days
how often might you need to do a tusk trim? where do you cut?might have to do every 1-3yrs, and you should cut to just above the gum line. Rasp or dremel to smooth
healthy weight for PBP is if you can see...the ribs and hips
*what vitamin is super important for PBPs to have? how much do they need?VITAMIN E!!! and eating fatty foods increases needs. need 400IU a week. gelcaps and / or daily children’s chewable vitamin (helps avoid white mm dz, mulberry heart dz)
PBPs tend to have weak neonates. what can you feed them and what CANT you feed them? also how do you measure how far to put the stomach tube in?DO feed them: human baby milk replacer, pedialyte. DONT: Avoid feeding products with sucrose neonates do not have the enzyme for sucrose in their intestinal brush border (so no gatorade or anything like that). STOMACH TUBE: measured to the last rib and passed orally
a pale pig comes in coughing and pale in the spring. owner said they got out of their pen. what might you suspect?rat poison!!
Gastric / intestinal foreign bodies--> common clinical signs? ddx? dx?you will see Repetitive vomiting (> 12 h), lethargy. R/O: TGE (unlikely), garbage eating, gastroenteritis (diarrhea)…rarely vomit with worms. DX with rads
pruritic pig= _________ until proven otherwiseMANGE!!! ZOONOTIC!!!
so you suspect do a scraping and it comes back neg- what now?Scrapings may be negative…treat and assess response (might need mult scrapings)
who is constipation most common in? What must you rule out?common in older and inactive pigs. Always RO urolithiasis/UTI because they might be straining to URINATE, not defecate.
how can you treat constipation in pigs? prevent?Enema – Warm soapy water, Any laxative for humans, Whole milk or milk replacer. PREVENTION: metamucil, citrucel, bran cereal
what inc risks of urolithiasis?not drinking enough water
at what size might you be able to manually restrain PBP for procedures (like hoof trimming)<30lbs (larger and you might need sedation/anesthesia)
after anesthesia/restraint you should warn owners about..need recovery time, and also they might vomit
MASK ANESTHESIA: what are things you can use for masks? what gas anesthetic can you use, and what is their induction and recovery like from anesthesia?Can make homemade masks from Plastic jugs and bottles, just be sure to pad the portion that fits around the snout. Then Glue Y piece to jug opening. Mask using 5% isoflurane and O2 flow very high (work it up a bit and then reduce it-- usually maintain at 3-3.5%) pigs go down quick AND GET UP QUICK
when can mask anesthesia be unsafe?If pig is vomiting, or if they have not been held off feed
what is Porcine Stress Syndrome?rare in PBPs but it does happen. It is a Genetic condition in white production pigs caused by a mutatated gene (Halothane gene Hal 1873; genetic test). Autosomal dominant trait --> defect in the mechanism for uptake, storage and release of calcium in muscle fibers. aka Malignant hyperthermia or Transport Myopathy
before you do sedation and anesthesia on a pig, why might you wanna do a genetic test?look for porcine stress syndrome gene (Test and eliminate both heterozygous and homozygous animals)
what are 3 drugs he says are good for sedation of PBPs? (and their pros and cons)Acepromazine (antiemetic, hypotension risk). Midazolam (safe and effective!), xylazine ALONE is unpredictable in pigs-- they appear to be somewhat resistant. don't use alone.
If you want to use ketamine as injectable anesthesia, what do you premed with first?Acepromazine, diazepam, or midazolam premed. ALSO if you are gonna intubate, add some atropine (IM)
if you are gonna intubate, what drug do you need to add to your premeds?atropine IM
where are you injecting ketamine for injectable anesthesia?IM-- and a very high dose! (potential for rough recoveries with injectable anesthesia- paddle/vocalize)
what is TKX? What do we use it for?Injectable anesthetic, is a combo of telazol, ketamine, and xylazine (large animal xylazine) (dont need to premed, got xylazine on board too)
What is telazol? how do you use it/why?injectable anesthetic agent. Premed with atropine. (not very popular in PBP world)
why does he prefer to use mask induction?hard to intubate a pig
If you want to use inhalation anesthesia, what are some struggles and considerations?they are difficult to intubate bc they can't open their mouths very wide. You also need to consider that you need to use atropine in order to intubate, but that it also inc salivation. You can use a stylette or a long wire as a guide for the tube. ***DO NOT PUT FINGERS INTO MOUTH
uhhh if you can't put your fingers in their mouth, how can you do a tusk trim? (said in class)so mask down pig, do feet at 3% maintenance with mask on. shut iso off, pull mask off, check jaw tone, make sure they are niceee and sedate. then tram a tooth, back on iso, another tooth, back on iso, etc. if jaw tone, he tries to get them more sedated bc will come out of it quickly
explain how to draw blood on a PBP1. Find manubrium sterni 2. Find point of RT shoulder. 3. Draw a line between the two (jugular furrow). 4. Insert needle at halfway point 5. Aim for the opposite shoulder blade.
If you can't get the jugular vein for some reason, what is an alternative blood draw site?superficial epigastric vein