Food Ani. Med- Swine- PE of the pig 1

drraythe's version from 2016-04-29 15:26

use your eyeballs

Question Answer
what are the NORMAL ways a pig lays, and which are ABNORMAL?normal: Sternal and lateral recumbency. ABnormal: "dog sitting"
if you see a pig "dog sitting" what might you think is the matter?might be a sign of resp. dz (Pneumonia, pleuritis)
if you see a pig with an arched back, what might you think that means?sign of PAIN, could be things like lameness, or Polyserositis
if you see a pig with a head tilt, what might you think it is?Strep. suis
if you see a pile of piglets, what might you think?They might be cold or not feeling well
aww, this pig is extra fuzzy wuzzy! how happy should you be?not. it means sthing is wrong. Many times due to dehydration, cachexia, and chronic chilling
what is the normal behavior of a pig if they see a human come around?they are curious, but also avoid confrontations (flight area of 6-10ft)
if a pig upon PE has hyperkinetic mms, what are 3 possible ddxs? Nutritional deficiencies, Genetics, CNS Dz
if you see a pig with droopy ears, what might this mean?means they are lethargic/not feeling well. could be systemic illness.
what are some general signs of of a systemically ill pig?Listless, Lethargic, or Slow pigs, droopy ears, Reluctance or failure to move when prodded
a normal, growing pig has "bloom"....what is this?Muscle / fat covering the skeleton, Full belly. You shouldn't see the hooks/pins
(mentioned in class) does he say water or feed medications are better?water meds are better, because they will back off of feed before they back off of water (they will only back off of water if they are feeling SUPER sick)
what might an unthrifty pig look like?Exposed skeleton, Longer, denser hair (Many times due to dehydration, cachexia, and chronic chilling)
if you see a pig with Longer, denser hair what do you think this means?Many times due to dehydration, cachexia, and chronic chilling
pig look gaunt (empty belly) how long after going off feed? 36 - 48hrs
what is the BCS scale we use on pigs? what does each number mean? (what is ideal?)1-5, 1: emaciated. 2: thin. 3: ideal. 4: fat. 5: overly fat.
how easily should you feel ribs, backbones, "Hook" bones and "pin" bones with an ideal (3) BCS?should be barely felt with firm pressure (4 and 5 they cant be felt, 1 they are obvious, and 2 they are easily detected with pressure)
what should a pig's proper limb angulation be?humerus should be almost perpendicular to the ground
Uneven toe size contributes to lameness- what is a NORMAL difference? Inside toe of front is usually slightly larger (should not be able to see a sig. difference)

use your hands

Question Answer
how do you retrain a pig under 40lbs?Grasp by mid section or hind legs
where should you NEVER grab to restrain a pig by? Do Not grasp by ears, tail, or front legs
Where should you NEVER grab a pot bellied pig?in addition to the other places you should never grab a pig (ears/tail/front legs) DO ~NOT GRAB PBPs BY THE LEGS!! they dislocate their shoulders and hips easily (which means only acceptable means to restrain them is grasping the midsection)
how do you restrain a large pig? (over 40lbs)hog snare
explain how to and how not to use a hog snare the cable loop is placed as far into the mouth as possible, BEHIND the upper canines. The snare is tightened over the snout, most pigs will then pull back, away from the snare. ***DO NOT ONLY GRAB TIP OF SNOUT-- SUPER PAINFUL
hog snare is particularly useful for..jug draws
when restraining pigs, for your own sake you should ..wear ear plugs
Pigs are marginally homeothermic. what does this mean?means they normally vary in temperature for a little bit. So look at ranges (normal, exact normal, and range temp)
When might temp inc in small pigs? when might temp inc in all pigs?inc with STRESS in small pigs, inc with AMBIENT TEMP with all ages.
what behavior might you see in febrile pigs?they might all pile on each other.
normal temp range for suckling/nursery pigs? Finishing pigs? sows?Suckling and nursery pigs: 101 to 103-104*F........Finishing pigs: 100 to 102-103 F................Sows: 99 to 101-102 F
(said in class) which is a worse prog-- too low or too high temp pig?too low= worse prog

body systems

Question Answer
If skin is Rough and there are Excoriations of skin, what do you think is wrong with the pig?mange
Superficial conjunctival congestion might indicate?insects causing problems
if pigs are tearing up, what might you think is going on? Irritation or plugged nasolacrimal ducts
if you see a deviated snout what might you think is the prob? Atrophic Rhinitis
if you see a swollen snout, what might you think is the prob? Bull nose Due to improper teeth clipping
might might nasal discharge of blood indicate? mucopurulent?Blood=atrophic rhinitis. Mucopurulent=inclusion body rhinitis
what is the problem if you leave the tail too short? too long?short= rectal prolapse (nn damage due to close clipping). Long= they bite each other's tails
how can normal stool vary among age groups of pigs? Sows & young pigs: is well formed and Greenish in color..... Older pigs: is formed but softer with greenish - yellow color
white poop might meanmalabsorption
orangeish-red poop might mean? (dz)porcine prolif enteropathy (PPE)
very malodorous poop might mean? (dz)TGE/PEDv (both are coronaviruses) Transmissible Gastro-Enteritis, Porcine Epidemic Diarrhoea
mucus in poop might mean? (dz)B. hyodisenteriae (Swine Dysentery, Brachyspira hyodysenteriae)
normal resp rate?30-40bpm
what is "thumps" and what does it usually indicate? Labored with a pronounced abdominal component- Suggests pneumonia 95% of the time
Tachypnea is most often caused by...hyperthermia
cough suggests dz of the airway. what are some airway dzs?M. hyopneumoniae (Enzootic Porcine Pneumonia), Swine Influenza Virus, Parasitic Pneumonia
a deep barking cough might make you think (this was said in class)swine flu
2 examples of resp dzs with NO cough?PRRS, APP (Actinobacillus Pleuropneumonia)
(said in class) with resp dz, you think you might know, and send off lab results. when do you tx?right away, dont wait for lab results, can lose like 100 in a day
how much discharge is normal post-farrowing? any appreciable discharge is abnormal- Normal to have small amount of clear, non-odorous fluid. (should not be an appreciable amount, be red or brown, or malodorous)
how common is retained placenta? retained fetus?RFM super uncommon bc each placenta comes out with each piglet (piglet->placenta->piglet->placenta). but having a whole retained retus is pretty common
when should you NOT give oxytocin if the sow needs help with birth?if sow is not having piglets, DO NOT GIVING OXYTOCIN UNLESS PELVIS IS CLEAR- will rupture uterus (Also if large piglets not a good idea either)
Abnormal discharge that is noted post breeding generally indicates...sow is not bred
Discharge late in gestation usually means?UTI or vaginal infxn
Red-brown discharge from urinary tract indicates...cystitis or nephritis (more common in females)
Most commonly seen signs of CNS dz are? (list)Convulsions, Hyperextension, Rigidity (Most common due to tetanus), Head tilt, Circling
if the whole pig is rigid, it usually means?tetanus
Extension of the head in a ratcheting/jerking pattern is seen with?water deprivation
so you recognize the key signs which indicate the pig is going through water deprivation (what are they again?) and you decide to fix the problem-- how do you go about giving the pig water?(head extended and jerking) you want to give them water back SLOWLY-- let water trickle on floor a bit so cant guzzle down water and overhydrate and get salt poisoning
If you see a pig laying down and paddling, what dz do you think it is and what is best to tx this?most likely Strep Suis-- penicillin is super effective against this
where can you give IM injections to a pig?NECK ONLY
where can you give SQ injections in pig?neck, flank, or axillary
how long must a needle be for IM injections?MUST BE LONG ENOUGH. in a sow you would need a 1.5" needle length
there is a table on slide 23 of needle sizes and lengths. yeah.eff that
if you are injecting a pig and the needle breaks off inside it, what should you do? need to be removed or the pig needs to be permanently marked and the packer notified!!
what should you NEVER do with needles?NEVER STRAIGHTEN A BENT NEEDLE
explain how you do blood collection in a small pig (restraint, which vessels, how to aim for vessel)typically need 2 ppl. hold the pig upsie down, and you can either collect blood from anterior vena cava or the jugular vein. Locate the tip of the sternum, move lateral to locate the jugular furrow and aim the needle toward the opposite shoulder
what needle would you pick (gauge and length) for a <15-20lb pig?22ga X 1”
what needle would you pick (gauge and length) for a >20lb small pig?20ga X 1.5”
how do you do blood collection for a large pig (over 40-60 lbs) (restraint, vessels used, how to aim for vessel)Restrain with snare, Collection from anterior vena cava or Jugular vein, Locate the tip of the sternum, move lateral to locate the jugular furrow and aim the needle toward the opposite shoulder
which size needle do you use for a larger (>40-60lbs) pig? how does it differ if it is a vacutainer vs a syringe?Vacutainer: 20ga X 1.5” needle, Syringe: 16ga X 3 – 4” needle (point towards opposite hip)
what drug should you always carry if you are gonna do blood draws on pigs- and why? (said in class)epinephrine- in case they have a stress reaction