Food Ani. Med- Swine- Farrowing Management

wilsbach's version from 2016-03-11 02:12

little oink

Question Answer
when is a large portion of litters lost?during gestation (40% of embryos lost in 1st half of gestation) (5% total litters lost in gestation)
(said in class) why can a pig have live and dead piglets in her at the same time?separate placentation for every piglet
WHEN does it happen for it to be considered EED (early embryonic death)?Death of embryo prior to calcification about 35 days
IF there is early embryonic death, what happens to the feti?complete resorption (bones not calcified)
mummies occur when feti are older than ___ and happens because why? what does it look like? Fetal death >35 days, not totally resorbed because bones and cartilage have developed. You will see Autolysis, Dehydration, Shrunken, Shriveled
what does abortion mean? (time in gestation?)Birth of the fetus prior to completion of normal gestation. Born dead or die shortly post parturition-- <112 days of gestation
what is a stillbirth?normal fetus, born dead
(said in class) why do piglets have anemia problems now?we took them off dirt, less exposure to iron
list some Noninfectious Causes of Fetal DeathOld sows / overweight sows, anemia (low iron), heat stress, seasonal infertility, high carbon monoxide levels, Nutritional factors (over/underfeeding, mineral and vitamin deficiencies), mycotoxins in feed
are most fetal losses infectious or non-infectious?non

Swine repro dzs: porcine parvovirus (PPV), Porcine respiratory & reproduction syndrome (PRRS), Lepto, Pseudorabies (PRV), Brucella suis

Question Answer
WHO is most affected by porcine parvovirus (PPV) Reproductive failure in naïve dams aka Reproductive failure more likely to occur in gilts.!!! (just like how parvo affects puppies)
how common is PPV? (which presentation of the dz is most common?) Endemic in most swine herds- Subclinical Dz is most common ( Prior to PRRS, the most commonly diagnosed infectious cause of reproductive failure in swine.)
what are the clinical signs of PPV? (what wON'T you see?) Repro failure alone (no piglets). Stillbirths, mummies, EED, & Infertility ******poor pregnancy rate**. No respiratory or neurologic signs, ABORTION IS RARE
what will hx of farrowing house look like with PPV? Record analysis reveals increased EED &/or Fetal death
what are two ways you can dx PPV? (which samples do you take?)IFA on fetal tissues (lung), or Serology (acute and convalescent titers. need paired titers bc most pigs have been exposed and have Abs-- neg test excludes PPV tho)
is there vx for PPV?yes, just like dogs
what is vx regimen like for PPV?vx 2X. 2wk apart, and several weeks before breeding. ( Stimulate an active immunity in the dams that protect the developing fetuses)
So a farmer bought some young PPV negative gilts, but is worried about introducing them to his positive sows. What recommendations can you give him? Seronegative stock can be exposed to a herd of seropositive older stock.
If a farmer's gilt is exposed to PPV, gets infected, and recovers, when should he vx her again? Life-Long immunity following natural infection.
how do you tx PPV infection?no effective tx :( just like dogs
PRRS is aka and aka?Mystery swine disease, SIRS (Swine infertility and respiratory syndrome), Blue ear disease.
what is PRRS caused by?PRRS virus, Enveloped RNA virus of the Arteriviridae family. Fragile virus
(said in class) which sample do you send in with PRRS?TONSILS
what are the two types of groups affected by PRRS, and what are the CSs for these groups?(1) Sows and Gilts: LATE TERM ABORTIONS are often the first sign. Also premature farrowing (<114d), mummies/stillbirths (2) Nursery-Grower Pigs: High pre-weaning mortality, unthrifty, RESP SIGNS
*resp signs in nursery pigs/growers might hint you towards?PRRS
two tests to dx PRRS (samples used)(1) Blood Testing/Serology: Acute (when sick) and convalescent antibody titers (10-14 d later). (2) Virus Detection (Serum)-- Sample younger pigs
is there a vx for PRRS?yes
4 options for tx of PRRS?(1) Deliberate exposure of gilts to maintain an immune breeding herd (2) Antibiotics in feed or water for prevention of 2* bacterial infections (e.g. pneumonia) (3) Vaccination: Modified-live vaccines. ( Strain variation(heterogeneity) of PRRS viruses limits efficacy of vaccination) (4) Depopulation, disinfection, repopulation: $$$$$$$ :( :(
what stage of gestation does PRRS cause repro failure?ANY stage of gestation
once PRRS is endemic in a herd, who is most affected then?Older sows develop immunity (Strain Specific), The disease becomes focused in the younger animals (gilts)
Why is lepto such a big deal?ZOONOTIC
**which serovars of lepto are most important in swine? Serovars pomona and bratislava are the most important in swine [both are lepto interrogans] (also on slide but I am not bothering to memorize: Leptospira interrogans (serovars pomona, icterohaemorrhagiae, canicola, and bratislava), Leptospira borgpetersenii (serovars sejroe and tarassovi) , Leptospira kirschneri (serovar grippotyphosa) )
how does lepto cause dz (pathogenesis) Penetrate mucous membranes, wounds, and abrasions--> Leptospiremia then develops--> Localize in the kidney or uterus
which lepto serovar likes to localize in the reproductive tract of nonpregnant sows and in the genital tract of boars? Leptospira bratislava (bratwurst is shaped like penis. That is all)
which two dzs cause late term abortions in swine, and how can you tell them apart?LEPTO Late, but PRRS can cause late term abotions too, but PRRS has resp signs
how helpful is fetal necropsy with lepto?nonspecific findings
3 tests to dx lepto?(1) Serum tests ( 4 fold increase in antibody titer between acute and convalescent samples, OR MAT – Serovar specific, should sample 10 animals, paired samples may be needed.) (2) Dark-field microscopy of urine (3) IFA fetal fluids, kidney
necropsy (not of aborted fetus, that is non-specific) of lepto case will reveal...White foci on kidneys at slaughter
2 major CSs aside from abortion you see with lepto in momKIDNEY FAILURE and also ICTERUS (bc hemolytic toxins)
how can you help control exposure to lepto?TEST INCOMING PIGS, Rodent & Wildlife control, Eliminate Standing Water, AI
is there a vx for lepto?yes, just like ddogs (2x/yr baseline, 4x/yr if herd problem- does interfere with testing tho)
how can you help reduce shedding of lepto?tetracyclines in feed
how can you elim carrier states?cant- not even vx or abx can help this
Pseudorabies (PRV) is caused by what?PORCINE HERPES virus. (not rabies!)
pseudorabies is aka?“Mad Itch”/Audjesky’s disease
pseudorabies Infection in other livestock or pets leads to ..fatal neurologic disease
CSs in NOT pigs which might indicate pseudorabies?Evidence of itching: self mutilation (fatal neurological dz)
PRV reservoir?Eliminated from commercial swine (2004), Reservoir is feral pigs.... meaning All U.S. herds are now “naïve” (reservoirs are in the southeast and cali)
CS of PRV (pseudorabies)Abortion, stillbirths, & mummies at any stage, Neurologic disease, weakness in newborns, Respiratory disease PLUS rhinitis, tonsillitis
soooo pseudorabies can cause RESP signs AND abortion... how can you tell it apart from PRRS?it ALSO has neurodz in the bbs and ALSO has rhinitis, tonsillitis
so if feral hogs are the only way to transmit pseudorabies to commercial pigs... how is it transmitted between them?Venereal Transmission only
potential reservoirs for brucella suis?Feral swine & possibly wild hares are potential reservoirs.
what are the two zoonotic ones?brucella suis, leptospirosis
which one is a fragile etiological agent? which is hardy in the enviro?Fragile: PRRS. Resistant: Brucella suis (Survive desiccation, freezing and near-freezing temperatures for over two years-- but killed by common disinfectants and UV light)
how is B. suis transmitted?contact with animals, feces,or repro secretions
2 ones that penetrate mucous membranes?lepto and brucella
explain pathogenesis of B. SuisPenetration of mucous membranes--> colonization of regional lymph nodes (lymph or within macrophages)--> long, continuous or intermittent periods of bacteremia (remember if sthing hides in the immune system, stress can bring it out)
what are the CSs of brucella? (what are the first signs?) (how are females and males affected differently?)First signs are infertility (30-45 return to estrus) ... SOWS/GILTS: ABORTIONS (any stage, subsequent normal deliveries) and INFLAMMATION OF THE PLACENTA. BOARS: lameness and orchitis
3 wys to dx B suis?(1) Serology (2) Culture organism (from vaginal discharge, or aborted fetus/placenta)
which is reportable?Brucella suis
how do you tx brucella?ABX NOT EFFECTIVE! Only effective way to control is depopulate facility for at least 2-3 months…$$$$
which repro dz for seeing these other signs (separate): NEURO? RESP? KIDNEY/ICTERUS?neuro: pseudorabies. Resp: PRRS. KIDNEY/ICTERUS: lepto
who is involved says a lot about the dz. which one also affects boars? which one is only gilts?Brucella affects boars also. GILTS/naieve is usually parvo (young dog, young pig) (in a endemic herd the the gilts tend to be the focus of PRRS just bc older ones have immunity tho)
what are the mummy dzs? StillbirthsPPV, PRRS, PRS-- basically all the weird abbreviated ones for both cases
what are the major abortion ones?PRRS, Lepto, brucella
which two DZs have the SOWS sick? which WONT have the sows sick?SICK SOWS: PRRS, PSUEDORABIES. NOT SICK SOWS: parvo,brucellosis. (lepto is a maybe)


Question Answer
what are some signs of impending farrowing?Vulvar swelling 3-4 days prior, Restless, nesting 24 hours prior, Milk within 12-24hrs, Resp. rate increases to ~80-90, lateral recumbency, Observe quietly for 30 min, don’t disturb unless problems arise
HR of _________ might indicate farrowing is upon us?80-90
during what time of day do most farrowings happen?darkness 60% of the time
about how long does it take for delivery of all piglets? When might this time be longer? (up to how long is ok?)Usually 3 hours or less to deliver all piglets; longer for gilts, obese sows, older sows (up to 5 h still OK)
about how long should be between each piglet?Piglets born ~15-20 minutes apart (later pigs in litter have longer interval)
if anterior or posterior presentation normal/more common?50/50
if the umbilical cord is attached to the sow after delivery, what should you do?leave it
dystocia is inc risk after how many days gestation?>120 (normal is 115d)
what are signs of dystocia? Anorexia, Blood-tinged or malodorous discharge, Unproductive labor >1 hour, Placenta visible or palpable in vagina
if there is a retained placenta, what can you infer from this?retained piglet!!
2 main reasons for dystocia?Exhaustion/uterine inertia, or oversized fetus
how do you go about pullin out that dystocia baby? what if you cant reach dystocia baby?Clean vulva & perineum, Copious lubrication +/- lidocaine mixed in, Manual exploration (Check if the vagina & cervix are clear, or snare or forceps). IF YOU CAN'T REACH: 10 IU oxytocin IM, wait 20 minutes, then recheck
what is MMA syndrome and how do you treat/prevent it?Mastitis, Metritis, Agalactia. Use Abx, NSAIDs (make sure its one you can use in food animals), and PGF2a
how can you help constipation related with farrowing?Laxatives in feed, exercise
two ways you can help avoid savaging?(aka cannibalism) educate owner and possibly sedate mom
when is tail docking done?12-72hrs after birth-- prevents them from biting each others tails off (*dont dock too short or prone to rectal prolapse)
aside from tails, what OTHER two things are trimmed or clipped shortly after birth?(1) Needle/wolf teeth clipped (dont trim too short, do in first 24hrs) (2) trim navel leaving 3-4" and dip with 2% iodine. umbilical infection can lead to umbilical hernia.
when are piglets castrated?prior to wearning (1-3wk)
when are iron injections done?1-2d
how can you equalize litters?cross fostering (instead of 1 mom with 8 and 1 with 2, can have both with 5)