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Food Ani. Med- Small Ruminant Parasites 4

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wilsbach's version from 2016-02-05 01:41

Cattle (apparently not on test)

Question Answer
General clinical manifestations in cattleYoung animals (ill thrip to serious dz and death), Appetite suppression, Diarrhea, Hypoprotinemia (appetite, dxa and protein loss into GI)
are young or adult cattle more prone to GI parasites?young
which type of parasites are cattle most affected by? (6 examples)Most affected by strongyl-type nematodes. Exs: Ostertagia ostertagi (abomasum), Cooperia, Haemonchus Placei (abomasum and si), Trichostrongylus, Oesophagostomum (large and small intestines), Nematodirus (large intes)ne) and trichuris (cecum)
what is the general nematode life cycle?L3 infective larvae--> Ingestion --> develop to L4 larvae --> Sexually mature adults within 2 - 4 weeks of ingestion of L3 --> Arrested development at L4 delays cycle
how is Nematodirus' life cycle different from the general nematode life cycle?Develops an infective L3 within the egg before it hatches (NORMAL: L3 infective larvae--> Ingestion --> develop to L4 larvae --> Sexually mature adults within 2 - 4 weeks of ingestion of L3 --> Arrested development at L4 delays cycle)
how is Trichuris' life cycle different from the general nematode life cycle?Develops infective L1 within the egg, which only hatches post ingestion. Takes 8 weeks to develop sexually mature adults (NORMAL: L3 infective larvae--> Ingestion --> develop to L4 larvae --> Sexually mature adults within 2 - 4 weeks of ingestion of L3 --> Arrested development at L4 delays cycle)
With what conditions does L3 persist in? What conditions caused them to die quickly?L3 persists longest in cool wet conditions but dies quick in summer aper (rain aided) liberation from cowpat (Subtropical climates have less seasonality)
what is the general nematode lifecycle like in arid climates?large number of infective larvae present whenever conditions are favourable (opportunists)
In Southern Warmer climates (hot, dry summers)..... when are peak pasture populations? When do they stop/resume development?Peak pasture populations in late spring to early summer. They then L4 over summer and Resume development in fall when conditions are more desireable.
In Northern temperate climates... when are peak pasture populations? When do they stop/resume development?Peak pasture populations in summer and early fall. They then L4 overwinter and resume development in the spring
what is the Pathophysiology of O. ostertagi in cattle? (where and what happens)Larvae develop in the lumen of the gastric glands of abomasum--> Hyperplasia and intense eosinophilic infiltration (Moroccan leatherlook) --> Mucosal gland cells lose differentiation --> Cell junctions weakened --> Albumin lost into lumen --> Parietal cells become dysfunctional --> NO HCl BEING PRODDUCED: Lost bacteriostatic effect, Alkalinity stimulates over production of gastrin, pH > 5: pepsinogen not converted, pepsinogen accumulates and gets into blood via permeable cell junction
how are CALVES affected by O. ostertagi?elevated peripheral eosinophillia and decreased lymphocyte counts.
I say Moroccan leather, you say.... O. ostertagi (due to hyperplasia of glandular mucosa)
which parasite causes an increase in the pH of the abomasum, and at what pH do you start to really see crazy problems?O. ostertagi. pH > 5: pepsinogen not converted, pepsinogen accumulates and gets into blood via permeable cell junction
how long does immunity start to happen after exposure of O. ostertagi?Induce immunity only aper prolonged exposure
O. ostertagi infections are usually first noted when?Noted at 2 years old or aper second grazing season
After what time do you rarely see clinical signs associated with O. ostertagi infections?Following second grazing season rarely clinical signs despite continued ingestion of infective larvae
Prevention and therapy for Ostertagia ostertagi should focus on who?should focus on or be directed at young grazing stock ( Following second grazing season rarely clinical signs)
what are the two distinct clinical pictures of Ostertagia ostertagi?(1) Type 1 ostertagiasis in < 18 month old cattle. (2) Type 2 ostertagiasis in 2 – 4 year old cattle
Type 1 Ostertagiasis--> When does this type occur? what areas does this tend to occur in and when does it peak? CS?happens with a Rapid acquisition of large numbers of larvae. They Complete life cycle in 3 weeks and cause Appetite suppression. In temperate areas you see this during the fall peak
Type 1 vs Type 2 ostertagiasis--> which is all larvae, which is larvae and adults?Type 2 is larvae and adults
Type 2 ostertagiasis--> When does this type occur? What areas does this tend to occur in and when does it pear? CS?Arrested larvae and active adults together because Hypobiosis larvae develop after first grazing period are released. You will see Intermittent profuse watery dxa , thirst, anorexia, ill thrift and hypoproteinemia as well as Fever, anemia bottle jaw. Temperate regions cx in late spring, right at the end of hypobiotic term so lots coming out!!
Type 1 vs Type 2 ostertagiasis--> WHEN in the seasons does each occur?Type 1: fall. Type 2: spring (after hypobiosis over winter, so adults come out and then larvae are being ingested at same time)
Type 1 vs Type 2 ostertagiasis--> compare CSsType 1: appetite suppression (just larvae in type 1). Type 2: larvae AND adults, see more CS like Intermittent profuse watery dxa , thirst, anorexia, ill thrift and hypoproteinemia as well as Fever, anemia bottle jaw
Hemonchous eat what?blood. So....blood related symptoms.
how does Trichostrongylus axei affect cattle?produces local and systemic changes similar to ostertagi
how does cooperia affect cattle?induce tissue changes reduced feed intake
Oesophagostomum radiatum cause what problems in cattle?Tissue structural and functional abnormalities. Anemia, hypoprotonemia dxa, anorexia, wt loss.
how much of a prob is Anthelmintic resistance by GINS in cattle?less of a prob in cattle
which cattle parasite is most sensitive to anthelmintic resistance development?cooperia
Resistance is a secondary concern to...?production loss
what tx regimen can help reduce number of eggs dropped?Prophylactic treatment two to three times between turnout and midsummer reduces eggs dropped
which 3 drugs can extend the interval of treatment-- and how long of an extension?Residual effect of ivermec and dora or moxidectin means interval is extended to 5 and 8 weeks respectively
explain the "dose and move" strategy. Why do we like it? Dose calves one dose then move to clean or safe pasture (early to mid summer in temperate climates) Just before anticipated peak in pasture infectivity. Helps Perpetuate resistant genes. Over wintered L3 may cause high populations and Cx in spring (need to dose earlier)
what are 3 things you can do to help make sure your tx is strategic?(1) Refugia kept in adult cattle (don’t dose >2 year olds) (2) Do not graze first year calves on same pasture each year (3) Do not use same family of anthelmintic year after year in calves
*WHO do you keep the refugia in?ADULTS!! DONT TX >2yo
explain the alternate strategy for parasite control of pasture.....what risk must you be aware of?Alternate grazing of cattle and sheep (3 year rotation with crops) ***haemonchus contortus in cattle low until pasture highly contaminated then DANGER!!***
*how much should you worry about haemonchus contortus with cattle?***haemonchus contortus in cattle low until pasture highly contaminated then DANGER!!***
who can you graze together to help with parasite control?graze calves with adults
**what three parasites is there a vx for in cattle?Haemonchus contortus, Teladorsagia circumcincta, Ostertagei ostertagei
you can clinically relate your fecal float results with what tool?McMaster's key
in a Fecal egg count reducion test, what is considered a successful reduction, and what factor do you need to consider?>90% reduction is successful. must remember Observed vs True
Parasite control assessment--> 7 things you can do to assess(1) Fecal float using Mc Masters key (2) Fecal egg count reduction test (3) Larval id (4) Egg hatch assays (5) Larval culture (6) Pasture larval counts (7) necropsy
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Practice questions

Question Answer
of orf, foot rot, bluetongue and ringworm, which is not considered a dz your small rumi would pick up at a show?bluetongue
which goat breed is very prone to internal parasites?boer
are bucks or wethers more susceptible to urolithiasis?wethers who are castrated young--> testosterone usually makes urethra wider
what is an appropriate means of restraining a sheep and stop them from running?lift up their head (you can move them backwards too)
Confinement housing puts animals at risk of?mastitis
Sheep milk ofter better tolerated by humans who have milk allergies because?It has a lower alpha S1 Casin content
which of the following diseases is more likely to lead to an elevated SCC in goats?CAE
What is the toxic dose of lidocaine, which dose will cause neurological symptoms?>10mg/kg
3 standard vx for sm rumiclos D and T and tetanus
what is the causative agent for ORFparapox
which arthropods are most responsible for the transmission of blue tongue?midges
Abomasal emptying defect is most common in who?female ewes around winter lambing
Secondary copper deficiency is commonly associated with which predisposing factor?high levels of molybdenum in the soil
Listeria is most commonly associated with which feed?elevated pH
although PEM can have its causal root in the consumption of high concentrations of sulfates or in the consumption of thiaminase containing plants, the fundamental component of its pathology is?impaired glycolysis in neural tissue (brain is dependant on this)
How can scrapie can be definitively diagnosedPost mortem, using immunohistochemistry on histological sections of the spinal cord
Which of the following treatment options has been shown to be affective against the causative agent of CLAinta lesions tulathromycin
Regarding the mortality rate associated with Foot and mouth disease, which demographic is most at risk and why? Young stock, cardiac lesions
How do you diagnose the presence of Dictyocaulus Filairiabaerman (its a lung worm)
Which of the following dwell in the parenchyma of the liver?Faciola Magna
a flock of sheep are pruritic and on closer inspection you find blood flecks in their wool in the trunk area. You see little fly like creatures in the wool but they dont have wings. What is your diagnosis? Melophagus ovinus
which lung worm has an indirect lifecycle?Muellerius Capillaris (snails and slugs)
Which of the following is associated with THE MOST IMPRTANT PATHOLOGICAL LESION FOUND BY US MEAT INSPECTORS ON IMPORTED MUTTONTaenia ovis
The common name for Cooperia is?intestinal worm
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