Food Ani. Med- Small Ruminant Parasites 3

wilsbach's version from 2016-01-27 00:44


Question Answer
Official name for rumen fluke?Paramphistomum
5 major small rumi GI parasites?Haemonchus contortus, Teladorsagia (ostertagia) circumcincta, Trichostrongylus columbiformes, Cooperia Curticei, Oesophagostomum spp.
4 less important small rumi GI parasitesNematodirus, Trichuris, Bunostomum, Strongyloides Papillosus
Cattle--> Ostertagia ostertagi lives where?abomasum
cattle--> two major GI parasites she bolded for cattleOstertagia ostertagi and cooperia
cattle--> Haemonchus Placei lives where?Abomasum and SI
cattle--> Oesophagostomum lives where?L and S intestines
cattle--> Nematodirus and trichuris live where?NEMA: L int. TRI: cecum
cattle--> 6 GI parasites she listed for cattleOstertagia ostertagi (abomasum), Cooperia, Haemonchus Placei (abomasum and si), Trichostrongylus, Oesophagostomum (large and small intestines), Nematodirus (large intestine) and trichuris (cecum)
Describe the lifecycle of Haemonchus contortus starting with where the eggs hatchHatch on pasture within 5 days in hot months, Climb vegetation or burrow into soil. Aper ingested they exsheath and lay eggs in 14 days. Adult lives in the abomasum or small intestine
where do adult haemonchus contortus live?abomasum or sm int
what does the High fecundity of haemonchus contortus imply for farmers?(Fecundity means fruitfulness and fertility, the ability to produce abundant healthy growth or offspring) lots of contamination, means lots of dirty pastures
why is haemonchus contortus considered so economically important?Extract 1/10th of blood volume per day
what might impact the effects of a H. contortus infection?consider Age, gender, productivity, reproductive status, stress, body condition score on immunity, resistance and clinical condition
what are the major CS of Haemonchus contortus?anemia, hypoproteinemia, anorexia, eosinophilia, diarrhea, Decreased appetite, decreased nutrient utilization, weight loss and decreased growth, lethargy/collapse, wool break, poor production
what percent of of herd infected is responsible for the majority of pasture contamination (egg output)? explain (goat herd)20-30% of the herd. This is because of the distribution of the FEC (fecal egg count)-- 66% <1000 EPG, 33% > 1000 and up to 20000 EPG
*what should you totally know about susceptibility of small rumis to Haemonchus contortus?Susceptibility is heritable (sire related) (so....the dad is the problem)
Telodorsagia is aka?Ostertagia (life cycle 21d)
what kinda climate does Telodorsagia (Ostertagia) prefer?Prefers cool climates, so can undergo hypobiosis
Nematodirus--> what are the eggs like?Has a resilient L3 within the eggs. Eggs are very large
what temp does Nematodirus prefer? how resilient are they?Prefers the temperature at 50 F, and Survives for a long time in the environment
where do adult nematodirus like to live?Adult lives in the Small Intes)ne
CS of nematodirus?Acute diarrhea in young animals which may be fatal
which GI parasite can cause acute diarrhea in young animals which may be fatal?nematodirus
the "intestinal" worm is...?Cooperia
where does adult cooperia live?in sm int
CSs of cooperia?anorexia, diarrhea and depression
**which parasites can be transmitted in the milk?Strongyloides
H. contortus’ FEC (fecal egg count) relates well to.... (2 things)seasonal and geographic prevalence.
FAMACHA score correlates well with what?fecal egg count (FEC)
how many eggs per gram (EPG) of the fecal egg count (FEC) for H. contortus is considered significant? How many EPG till you see clinical dz?>3000 EPG is sig. ..... Rarely see disease before > 5000 EPG
Teladorsagia (ostertagia)--> what is EPG (eggs per gram) of fecal egg count (FEC) where you can see clinical signs?clinical signs as low as 300 EPG (H. controtus is like >5000 so woah)
what is a sig. EPG count for Other Trichostrongyles?significant >2000 EPG
Dx--> you can help dx GI parasites with a fecal float using what tool?Mc Masters key (way to score severity of infection of herd)
FAMACHA is a good way to score for what GI parasit only? how does it work?ONLY GOOD FOR H. CONTORTUS. basically see how anemic they are based on eyelid MMs
If you have preggo rumis, WHEN do you want to treat for GI parasites, and why?Treat in the Periparturient period, 2 weeks pre to 8 weeks post. This is to help with Nutrient partitioning. Protein supplement 6 weeks prior
when should you treat the little baby bah'bah's for GI parasites? why?Tx during weaning, because they are already under stress, and preconditioning (ideal nutritional management)
**you want to Treat at strategic times of the year for the parasite. What is the time you DEF want to treat? When DON'T you want to treat?DO: When at the peak of season. DON'T: Try to avoid drenching when there are low numbers of worms (such as When over wintering (cold /dry) and few parasites or When over summering (hot/dry) and few parasites )
for Target selective treatment what 3 major considerations must you have?Host considerations, Parasite considerations, Climate considerations
**what is REFUGIA?Worms in the population not subjected to treatment. Resistant worms' genes are diluted by susceptible worms left to reproduce and allow their genes to dilute out the resistant genes. This Slows development of resistance and there is Reduced selection pressure. Don’t treat or reduce refugia in the population!!
*what breed of goats is particularly susceptible to GI parasites?boer goats
GI parasite control--> 3 things to consider about the HOST?signalment, Resistance / resilience, Breed considerations (boer goats)
GI parasite control--> what are the parasite considerations you must be mindful of?Pathologic or not, Life cycle (length of life), Adverse climate survival (over winter etc. ), Fecundity rate, Correla)on between FEC and reality, Susceptibility or resistance to drugs
List off the hypobiosis parasites (2)haemonchus contortus, Telodorsagia (Ostertagia)


Question Answer
what are the three Benzimidazoles?Fenbendazole, Oxfenbendazole, Albendazole
which benzimidazole is considered very safe?Fenbendazole
*which benzimidazole should NOT be given in the first 3wk of life, or when dam is pregnant?Albendazole ( "Albendazole Eliminates at the beginning (beginning of ABCs is A) )
are Benzimidazoles more efficacious on a full or empty stomach?(albendazole, fenbendazole, oxyfenbendazole) Hold off feed for better efficacy
Do you get better efficacy with benzimidazoles with a higher dose, or mult doses?mult doses
banzimidazoles--> (what are the 3 drugs again?) their spectrum includes what 2 harder to kill baddies?Spectrum includes Monezia and Giardia.
what are the two categories of Membrane depolarizers?Imidazothazoles (Levamisole) and Tetrahydropyramidines (morantel) (Pyrantel)
what kinda drug is fenbendazole?Benzimidazoles
what kinda drug is oxyfenbendazole?Benzimidazoles
what kinda drug is albendazole?Benzimidazoles
hurts fetii in last 3 wk of preg if you give this drug Last 3 wk= Levamisole
what kinda drug is levamisole?Imidazothazoles (which are membrane depolarizers)
what kinda drug is morantel?Tetrahydropyramidines (which are membrane depolarizers)
what kinda drug is pyrantel?Tetrahydropyramidines (which are membrane depolarizers)
which anthelmintics are very safe in preggo anis at any stage?Tetrahydropyramidines (morantel) (Pyrantel)
which anthelmentic should you not give to debilitated animals?Imidazothazoles (Levamisole)
what are the three benefits of using Tetrahydropyramidines? (what are the names of the drugs in this category?)(morantel and Pyrantel) Broad spec, Very safe in pregnant animals, Less resistance developed
ivermectin is what kinda drug?avermectins
moxidectin is what kinda drug?milbemycins
Avermectin (ivermec) / milbemycins (moxidectin) treat which things, and DONT kill what things?Nematodes and arthropods (invertebrates, AM not dung beetle friendly)
which drugs must you be careful with because you might kill all the dung beetles which are good for your farm?Avermectin (ivermec) / milbemycins (moxidectin)
which drugs can actually kill hypobiotic (overwintering) larvae?Avermectin (ivermec) / milberycins (moxidectin)
what is a good way to admin Avermectin (ivermec) / milberycins (moxidectin) to sm rumis? what way isnt so great?Oral is good for sheep and goat. Pour on bioavailability is poor for small ruminants
which drugs have a particularly long half life? (persistent availability)Avermectin (ivermec) / milberycins (moxidectin)
what kinda drug is Monepantel?Amino Acetonitrile's a new drug

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