Food Ani. Med- Small Ruminant Parasites 2

drraythe's version from 2016-04-29 14:55

Hepatobiliary 2

Question Answer
which is more severe- fasciola hepatica or magna? why?Magna is worse, bc Larvae get trapped in parenchymal migration phase so disease is much more severe
**what test do you do to test for liver fluke eggs, and when doing this, what is important to keep in mind?Sedimentation test (using Methylene blue might help). MUST KEEP IN MIND THAT F. magna does not complete its life cycle in sheep and goats, so eggs are not produced
what does Hematology look like with liver flukes?eosinophilia, anemia
what does serum chem look like with liver flukes?increased liver enzymes (esp GGT she said), hypoalbuminemia
test you can use to dx liver flukes, aside from post mortem or sedimentation test? (usu done in research labs)Dot ELISA in research labs
Flukicides are effective against what stage of fluke?adults
which flukes tend to mature later, which has implications on your use of flukicides (since they only kill adults)?Further north flukes mature later in the summer
what are the 3 drugs you can use to tx liver flukes?Clorsulon, Ivermectin, Albendazole
what awesome drug works against mature AND immature flukes?clorsulon (Fasciolicidal drug)
two ways to help prevent liver fluke infection?(1) Time treatment (2) Control exposure to slugs and snails
*****most important complications of a liver fluke infection you must be aware of? (2)Bacillary Hemoglobinuria (Clostridium novyi type D), and Black disease/ infectious necrotic hepatitis (Clostridium novyi type B)
***Bacillary Hemoglobinuria is caused by what agent?Clostridium novyi type D
Why would you see Hburia with a liver fluke infection? (which infectious agent)if there is Clostridium Novyi type D (Bacillary Hemoglobinuria), which liver flukes predispose to this infection, the bact release beta toxin, which causes intravascular hemolysis--> Hburia
alpha and beta toxins released by the liver flukes damage what?cause bleeding (damage to endothelium) and damage neurons
what are the two types of clostridium that liver flukes can predispose to, and what dzs do these cause?(1) Bacillary Hemoglobinuria (Clostridium novyi type D) (2) Black disease/ infectious necrotic hepatitis (Clostridium novyi type B)
liver fluke complications--> Bacillary Hemoglobinuria is caused by what, and what are the complications of this dz? WHEN (seasonally) do you see this dz?Caused by Clostridium novyi type D, This type of clostridium releases a toxin called beta toxin which causes intravascular hemolysis and endothelial damage. This leads to problems like Hepatocyte necrosis due to ischemic hepatic infarcts, *Intravascular Hemolysis so you will see Hburia, and rapid progression to death. Disease coincides with larval migration in late Summer and Fall
liver fluke complications--> Black disease/ infectious necrotic hepatitis is caused by what, and what are the complications of this dz? WHEN (seasonally) do you see this dz? CAused by Clostridium novyi type B, This type of clostridium releases Beta AND alpha toxin. The combination of toxins leads to local and systemic effects. The bacteria themselves are Consumed and disseminated in the macrophage system (including Kupfer cells) (so, intracellular she said). You will see Hepatocyte necrosis due to ischemic hepatic infarcts, damage to neurons, damage to endothelium, and Rapid progression to death (rapid autolysis). Disease coincides with larval migration in late Summer and Fall
what stains can you use/ what technique can you use to try to dx black dz? (whats the agent again?)Clostridium novyi type B (b for black). Gram stain liver / IFA

Derm + Neuro

Question Answer
5 major external parasites for small rumiFly strike, Sheep Keds (Melophagus Ovinus), Lice (sucking and chewing/biting), Nasal bot (Oestrus Ovis), Mange Mites
(not asking on but read over) the 3 internal parasites which cause skin lesions?Bunostomum phlebotomum (cattle hook worm), Bunostomum trigoncephalum (sheep and goat hook worm), Trichuris Ovis (sheep whip worm)
fly strike is a big problem in who? what are the 3 main fly contenders?Very common ectoparasite mediated disease in sheep. FLYS: Screwworm (Cochliomyia hominivorax), Cutaneous myiasis caused by Black Blowfly (Phormia regina), Other causes of Cutaneous myiasis (Lucilia cuprina)
what is unique about Screwworm (Cochliomyia hominivorax)? Where is this a problem?ERADICATED from USA, only need to worry about imports then. Unique: Screwworm feeds on healthy tissue others feed on necrotic tissue
Cutaneous myiasis caused by Black Blowfly (Phormia regina)--> who is particularly prone to this/ what is a big predisposing factor of this?Merino sheep and others with excessive skin folds
aside from the 3 flies listed, are there other flies you need to worry about with fly strike?Many other fly larvae will infect necrotic tissue
what are the clinical signs of fly strike?Skin irritation, foul odour, and death from secondary infection and toxaemia
what do you treat flystrike?use of insecticides, larvacides and broad spectrum antibiotics for secondary infections
Sheep Keds (Melophagus Ovinus)--> WHO gets these? How are they transmitted?Sheep are the only definitive host (other spp. Occasionally infested). Transmission requires DIRECT CONTACT
Why do sheep keds transmit dzs so easily?they feed on blood
how fast do sheep keds multiply?Female produces a single offspring which takes 4 – 6 weeks to become an adult
CS of Sheep Keds (Melophagus Ovinus)?irritation and pruritus caused by biting lead to rubbing and scratching and damages wool and skin. If the infestation is severe (they are blood suckers), you will see weight loss and anemia.
how do you dx sheep keds?wingless fly visible with naked eye
how do you tx sheep keds?Ivermectin!
WHO is lice most common in? What is a deciding factor on what lice infest?lice are Highly species specific! However it is generally more common in goats
What are the scientific family names for Sucking vs Chewing lice?SUCKING: Liognathus. CHEWING/BITING: Bovicola (formally Damalinia)
which is worse- sucking or chewing lice?sucking
Sucking vs Chewing lice: what do these like to feed on/ where do they prefer to be on the animal?SUCKING: Feed on blood and tissue fluid, Most commonly found on poll, nose, eyes, neck, withers and tail head (L. pedalis on feet). CHEWING: Feed on epithelial and cutaneous debris
how are lice transmitted? how long do they hang out on the sheep/goat?Transmission by direct contact or fomites, they survive on the host for several weeks as Eggs are attached to individual hair/ wool fibre, and Adults take 2- 4 weeks to develop from egg stage
clinical signs of lice?Pruritic --> coat and skin damage --> not eating so weight loss. Infection with L. pedalis (foot Lice) may cause lameness
Is this a mite or a lice? This is a mite!! They DO NOT HAVE BODY SEGMENTATION unlike lice. Mites are arachnids
is this a mite or a lice? This is lice! THEY HAVE BODY SEGMENTATION because they are insects (6 legs!). The left is a biting and the right is a sucking (obv biting needs big mouthparts)
*who gets mange mites most commonly?Goats > Sheep
how do you dx mange mites?Diagnosis on skin scraping (deep scraping required) (this is the opposite of small animal, don't get confused!!!)
WHEN do you want to treat your small rumis for mange mites?Treat after shaving/shearing (mites do not live long on short hair)
What can you use to treat mange mites? (4)Topical coumaphos, toxaphene, lime sulfur and phosmet
Mange mites--> Psoroptic mange--> aka? what is sthing super important you need to know about this?aka common sheep scab, this is REPORTABLE IN THE USA and HIGHLY CONTAGIOUS
how long does Psoroptic mange hang out on the host/ what is seasonality like?2 week life cycle but Can live off host for 3 weeks. In sheep cx in winter
*Mange mites--> Psoroptic mange--> how does distribution of lesions vary between sheep and goats?Sheep: Lesions primarily on trunk. Goats: lesions in ears as early as in 10 day old kids
What are CS of psoroptic mange?Saliva of mite cause intense inflammation with severe pruritus
"scabies" is what kinda mange?Sarcoptic Mange
WHO can get sarcoptic mange?Rare in sheep or goats or humans ZOONOTIC
which mange is zoonotic?sarcoptic mange (scabies)
how is sarcoptic mange transmitted, and how long does it live on the host?Transmitted by direct contact. Life cycle 17 days
what do sarcoptic mange mites do once they are on the host, how do you dx them?Burrow through skin and deposit eggs in tunnels, diagnosis requires deep scrape
what are the CS of sarcoptic mange? Where do you see the lesions?***intense pruritus, Lesions around eyes and ears but will spread to entire body. Chronic infestation causes hyperpigmentation and lichenification of skin
how do you tx sarcoptic mange?ivermectin
*which mange is super common in small rumis?chorioptic mange
Chorioptic mange CS?moderate pruritus
**how do lesions vary between sheep and goats with chorioptic mange?In sheep: Lesions on scrotum and distal limbs. (with psoroptic mange it is mainly on sheep's trunk so don't get confused). In goats: Lesions on lower limbs, abdomen, and hind quarters
how do you dx chorioptic mange?Skin lesions may be thick crusts so deep scrapings are required (All the small rumi manges need deep scrapings!!)
where on the body is affected by Demodectic mange?Affects face, limbs and back
I say folliculitis, you say...Demodectic mange
how do you dx demodectic mange?deep skin scraping
what are the clinical signs of demodectic mange?Infest hair follicles causing severe folliculitis and lichenification. Secondary pyoderma common complication
WHO is most prone to getting demodectic mange?Spread easily among kids and lambs but not in adult population
if you see a sheep with a severe demodectic infestation, what are you thinking?Severe infestation indicates immune-compromise and malnutrition
What is the parasite which causes neuro problems?Parelaphostrongylus tenuis (meningeal worm) (ascending paralysis, neuro signs, more in camelids when we get there)


Question Answer
6 kinds of tapeworms which affect the musculoskele system?Taenia Ovis, Taenia hydatigena, Taenia multiceps, Taenia Saginata, Echinococcus Granulosa, Monezia
what nematode affects the MS system?Toxacara vitulorum
what is the IH and DH of Taenia ovis?IH: sheep/goats. DH: canids and wild carnivores
where (and what stage of) is Taenia ovis found in sheep/goats?Cysticurcus ovis in cardiac & skeletal muscle
what are CS like for taenia ovis?usually asymptomatic
what is the IH and DH of Taenia multiceps?IH: sheep/goat/cattle. DH: domestic and wild canids
where (and what stage of) is taenia multiceps found in sheep/goats/cattle?Coenuris cerebralis in cranial cavity and spinal cord
what are the CS of taenia multiceps?Slow developing, grows over months, see NEURO SIGNS-- because they are SPACE OCCUPYING LESIONS in the cranial cavity and spinal cord
what are three ddx for taenia multiceps?Parelaphostrongylus tenuis, Listeria, PEM
which tapeworm (cestode) is the neuro one that just is in here bc it can be with the other cestodes then?taenia multiceps
Taenia saginata IH and DH?IH: cattle. DH: HUMANS.
where (and what stage of) is taenia saginata found in the body?Cysticurcus bovis in striated muscle, heart, tongue, masseter, intercostal and diaphragm
what are CSs of taenia saginata?usually no CS in IH!
**which taenia sp is reportable?Taenia saginata-- it's DH IS HUMANS!!! (adult up to 15m long)
Echinococcus granulosus IH? DH?IH: Ruminants Pigs HUMANS. DH: dogs/wolves/coyotes
where does Echinococcus granulosus live in the body of the IH? of the DH?IH: liver, lungs and muscle. DH: sm. int.
what are CSs like for Echinococcus granulosus?DH: no cs. IH: Disease related to organ cysts are in and how many and how big they are
which tapeworm has a lifestage that is very resistant to weather?Echinococcus granulosus Onchospheres are very resistant to weather (An oncosphere is the larval form of a tapeworm once it has been ingested by an intermediate host animal) (also Progoltds are very small)
Monezia IH and DH?IH: Oribatid mites. DH: Young rumis <1yo
which cestode prefers young rumis <1yo?monezia
where (and what stage of) is monezia found in the sheep/goat?Progolotds (segments) in feces (adults in intestine).
CSs of monezia?Asymptomatic until heavy load: Unthrifty, Diarrhea, obstruction
which cestode can overwinter in their IH?monezia (oribatid mite)