Food Ani. Med- Small Ruminant Parasites 1

drraythe's version from 2016-04-29 14:55


Question Answer
Roundworms are what kinda parasite?Nematodes
flukes are what kinda parasite?Trematodes
tapeworms are what kinda parasite?Cestodes
what are the two main kinda mites?Sucking and chewing/biting
clinical vs subclinical dz?Clinical dz is a disease that has recognizable clinical signs and symptoms, as distinct from a subclinical illness, which lacks detectable signs and symptoms. Diabetes, for example, can be a subclinical disease for some years before becoming a clinical disease. (so you need to consider if there are clinical signs, and how production is affected regardless of if there are CS or not)
what is premunition?This is "infection immunity" which is lost with sterilization. (internet says: Premunition, also known as infection-immunity, is a host response that protects against high numbers of parasite and illness without eliminating the infection.[1] This type of immunity is relatively rapid, progressively acquired, short-lived, and partially effective)
Over stocking / overgrazing is when there are too many animals per acre of land. How do you determine if you are overstocked or not? (units and numbers please)1 live stock unit (LSU)= One cow and calf OR ~ 4 - 6 ewe/doe and lamb/kid. 1ha (hectare, equal to 100 ares, which is 2.471 acres) of good pasture can house 1.5LSU.
***what is Refugia?Population not selected for drug treatment. We don't treat this population so that there are still non-resistant genes in the population so that we don't just kill the resistants and then only have non-resistant and no drugs to treat them with.
explain Hypobiosis and over winteringArrested development over unfavourable environmental conditions (ostertagia aka teladorsagia). Hypobiosis is IN THE HOST, and overwintering is outside the host.
pasture hygiene--> what is a "clean pasture"?one with none to minimal parasite contamination
(discussed in class) what are some ways to help make sure you have a "clean pasture"?after graze (not too low) then take them off THEN mow low-- expose parasite to sunlight etc. you can burn the pasture, till/ replant....they all need some time. Leave pasture fallow for a while
what are two types of "active transmission" of parasites?Active transmission with an animate vector actively seeks a host to give the parasite to OR Active transmission when the parasite itself seeks out a host to enter/infect
Part of transmission is the survival from one season to another...what are some ways parasites do this?Adult in host, Arrested larvae in host, As free living stages in the environment (Ascarid and Trichuris spp. Have tough eggs ), Within intermediate hosts
example of how only a few parasites are needed to start up a full blown infection again (in red in notes but might just be an example?)200EPG (eggs per gram) x 2kg x 7 defecations / day = 2.8 mil/EPD (eggs per day)
what is Rotational grazing?moving from one pasture/ camp to another. Allowing pasture to rest/not be grazed before returning to it
what are Alternate grazing strategies?Grazing other species (species less susceptible to the problem parasite) to “clean” the pasture
what is Traditional parasite control like? What things should you consider?the use of anthelmintics and parasiticides regularly to kill parasites. Must consider: Financially is it worth it? Investment today, cost of resistance tomorrow?
Strategic parasite control is multifactorial. What are the factors to consider?The host and the herd, The parasite, The pasture, The climate

Resp system parasites

Question Answer
what kinda parasite is Dictyocaulus Filairia?lungworm
what kinda parasite is Muellerius Capillaris?lungworm
what kinda parasite is Protostrongylus Rufescens? lungworm
what kinda parasite is Dictyocaulus Viviparus? lungworm (Toxocara Vitulorum is also a lung worm but we aren't gonna go over it)
*which lungworm is the MOST pathogenic?Dictyocaulus Filairia (Fil is a real dict)
what kinda lifecycle does Dictyocaulus Filairia have? explain itdirect life cycle (so most pathogenic sp. is direct)- hatch in abomasum, burrow into wall, lymphatics, lungs, then migrates out of lungs into airways, continue to develop there to adulthood, coughed up, swallowed into abomasum... No intermediate host!
does Dictyocaulus Filairia have a seasonality?Transmission in North America during fall and winter (cooler months)
WHO is most prone to getting Dictyocaulus Filairia? Is there an age predilection?Disease in 2 – 18 month old sheep
what are the CS of an infection with Dictyocaulus Filairia?Chronic fever, cough, nasal discharge, tachypnea, anorexia, weight loss. Also Predispose to secondary bacterial and viral infection; see associated cx
what would you see post-mortem with a Dictyocaulus Filairia infection?worms in bronchi, especially in diaphragmatic lobes. Also see pulmonary edema, emphysema, and atelectatic and pus filled lobes (irritation/inflammation through parenchyma in lung. lots of histamines (eosinophilic reaction) so closing of airways etc... chronic=fibrosing)
*which lungworm is the LEAST pathogenic?Muellerius Capillaris
IH (intermediate host) for Dictyocaulus Filairia?TRICK QUESTION-- this parasite has a direct lifecycle therefore no IH
what kinda lifecycle does Muellerius Capillaris have?Indirect life cycle (IH snail or slug)
IH (intermediate host) for Muellerius Capillaris?snail or slug
What is seasonality of Muellerius Capillaris like?Transmission in North America when snails (IH) are present; Spring and Summer (NOTE: Snails that survive the winter can carry over transmission from one year to the next)
what are CS of Muellerius Capillaris?few mild, lower respiratory compromise (it is the least pathogenic lungworm) **obviously clinical signs are worse with bigger burdens**
what will an infection with Muellerius Capillaris look like post-mortem?Worms in bronchi. Gray or greenish sub-pleural granulomas in caudal lobes, nodular adenoma like lesion due to proliferation of bronchial epithelium.... (nodular OR interstitial. can live in bronchioles or in parenchyma.) Goats can have widespread interstitial pneumonia without nodular lesions.
how pathogenic is Protostrongylus Rufescens?intermediate pathogenicity
what kinda lifecycle does Protostrongylus Rufescens have? Describe itIndirect life cycle (IH snail or slug). Adult live in small bronchioles, eggs coughed up and swallowed before being deposited in feces
what is the IH for Protostrongylus Rufescens?Snail or slug
which lungworm has LARVAE in the feces? which has EGGS in the feces?LARVAE: Dictyocaulus Filairia. EGGS: Protostrongylus Rufescens
what is seasonality like for Protostrongylus Rufescens?Transmission in North America when snails are present, Spring and Summer. Infected slugs and snails that survive the winter can carry over transmission from one year to the next
*which lung worm has possible transplacental transmission?Protostrongylus Rufescens
CS of an infection with Protostrongylus Rufescens?Diarrhea, weight loss, mucopurulent nasal discharge, tachypnea and increased respiratory sound
which lungworm is the mostly cow one?Dictyocaulus Viviparus
WHO gets Dictyocaulus Viviparus?Calves 4 -6 months old (this is the cow one. The other ones can give cow a mild non patend dz. but this one is the cattle dz...and sheeps and goats can get it but not as pathogenic to them )
where does Dictyocaulus Viviparus like to live in the body?Found in trachea, bronchi and bronchioles. However, Visceral migration so can be found all over body!
what is the lifecycle/how are animals infected with Dictyocaulus Viviparus?Direct infection (auto infection with un-swallowed eggs that hatch in the lungs OR swallowed eggs that hatch out and L3 migrate back to lungs)
What are the CSs of a Dictyocaulus Viviparus infection?Scours (diarrhea in neonates), rapid weight loss, verminous pneumonia. Rapid progression in heavy load may lead to obstruction
How do you dx a Dictyocaulus Viviparus infection?First stage larvae (species easily differentiated) in fresh feces prepared using *Baermann technique
which lungworm do you use Baermann technique to dx? which stage is dx?Dictyocaulus Viviparus, L1
how can you ID Dictyocaulus Viviparus and differentiate from other lungworms with a Baermann technique?Larvae from D. Filaria have straight tails and M. Capillaris and P. rufenscens have kinked tails
what drugs can you use to treat a lung worm infestation? Ivermectin, fenbendazole, or albendazole
which type of lung worm may require larger doses of Ivermectin or fenbendazole as immature cases survive lower doses?Refreactory cases of M. Capillaris
What can you do to help control lung worm problems that isnt just drugging everything?Eliminating intermediate host will go a long way toward control

Hepatobilliary 1

Question Answer
what are the two liver flukes?Fasciola Hepatica, Fasciola Magna
Fasciola Hepatica- where does this parasite occur geographically?Geographically restricted to where intermediate host occurs (Snail and Slugs)
what is the DH for fasciola hepatica?Sheep, Goats, cattle and humans
*which liver fluke has possible transplacental transmission?fasciola hepatica
explain the lifecycle/pathophys (how they tie together) of Fasciola HepaticaIngest metercercariae ( a cercaria encysted and resting [Cercaria (plural cercariae) – the larval form of the parasite, it develops within the germinal cells of the sporocyst or redia].) which encyst in the small intestine, larvae then travel to liver and migrate through liver capsule and parenchyma. The migration to the liver causes hge, Adults reach bile ducts and lay eggs which pass down bile ducts to small intestines and are deposited out in feces
the larval migration tracts of Fasciola Hepatica predispose the host to what problem?clostridial infxn
WHO does the ACUTE for of fasciola hepatica affect?naive animals on pasture with lots of larvae
ACUTE Fasciola Hepatica infection presents how (/CSs?) and WHY is it acute?(bc naive animals on pasture with lots of larvae) The result of immature flukes migrating through liver (1.5 – 5 months post massive infection) which results in Severe hemorrhage, anemia, and sudden death
SUBACUTE fasciola hepatica infection presents how (/CSs) and WHY is it subacute?Occurs 6 – 10 weeks after ingestion of large numbers of flukes. Cholangitis and rapid severe anaemia, hepatitis, hypoalbuminaemia (have some adults as well so cholangitis and eat RBCs so get anemia and hypoalb. bc if eating RBC also eating proteins )
what is time table of when you see acute vs subacute vs chronic fasciola hepatic infxn?ACUTE: 1.5 – 5 months post massive infection. SUBACUTE: 6 – 10 weeks after ingestion of large numbers of flukes. CHRONIC: Occurs 4 – 5 months after ingestion of moderate numbers
CHRONIC fasciola hepatica infection presents how (/CSs) and WHY is it chronic?Occurs 4 – 5 months after ingestion of moderate numbers. Flukes reside in bile ducts which begin to scar and calcify. You will see Hypochromic macrocytic anaemia, eosinophilia, hypoalbuminemia, emaciation and poor production
if there is a "poor do'er" 4-5 months into the grazing season, what form (presentation) of fasciola hepatica do you think they have?Chronic form
if about 3 months ago you started letting your small rumis out to graze and they out of nowhere hge and die, what kinda form (presentation) of fasciola hepatica do you think they have?acute
If 10 weeks ago you let your goats out to graze, and how you are seeing Cholangitis and rapid severe anaemia, along with hepatitis, what form (presentation) of fasciola hepatica do you think they have?Subacute
(said in class) after what age do animals develop a decent immunity to fasciola hepatica?2+ years
(said in class) fasciola hepatica infections tend to be chronic in who, and why?chronic usually in cattle bc dz more severe in sheep and goats
what is the most obvious CS of CHRONIC fasciola hepatica?cholangitis (bc adults live in biliary ducts)
lifecycle of Fasciola hepatica (pic)
lifecycle of Fasciola Magna (pic)
where (geographically) does fasciola magna live?Geographically restricted to where intermediate host occurs (Snail and Slugs)
DH of fasciola magna? IHs?DH: deer. IH: snail/slug